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Flashcards in IS 101 FINAL Deck (34)
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1

Bilateral Aid

Aid is given by the government of one country directly to another. It can be given in five types:
Tied aid, Untied aid, Food aid, Technical assistance, Emergency aid

2

Tied Aid

Aid is given for a specific purpose e.g. building materials for a new school.

3

Untied aid

Money is given for the receivers to spend it as they wish.

4

Food aid

Food is given to countries in urgent need of food supplies, especially if they have just experienced a natural disaster.

5

Technical assistance

Professionals, such as doctors, are moved into developing countries to assist with a programme of development

6

Emergency aid

This is given to countries in the event of a natural disaster or human event, like war, and includes basic food supplies, clothing and shelter.

7

3 Types of Poverty

Absolute, moderate, relative

8

3 waves of aid and development

1. Statist top-down mega projects (1945-1975)

2. Structural Adjustment Programs (1970s-1990)

3.Bottom-up pluralism (1990s – present)

9

4 Approaches to Poverty

1) Monetary Approach
2) Capability Approach
3) Social Exclusion Approach
4) Participatory Methods

10

Monetary Approach to Poverty

-Basic income approach measured
-Nutritional requirements of ‘individual’ is key to approach
-Primary and secondary poverty (Rowntree)
-Include private resources (income), not public (school)
-Critique: What about neglected members of the household? Also, the utility of differentiating between poverty and core poverty

11

Capability approach to poverty

-Human capabilities and functioning (Freedom)
-Identifying the so-called ‘good-life’
-Individualist approach to poverty
-Human Development Index (UN)
-Challenges: Measuring could be seen as subjective

12

social exclusion approach to poverty

-Explores marginalization and depravation
-Focuses on relativity, agency and future dynamics
-Sees poverty as a process and tends to focus on groups
-Explores the dynamics of the excluders and the excludees
-Multidimensionality and depravation (more than one)
-Challenges: Relative nature of the method and precision in finding a clear definition

13

Participatory methods approach to poverty

-Encourage populations to assess their own poverty
-Internal rather than external assessment
-Self-determination and empowerment
-Improve anti-poverty drives and support mutual learning
-Method often used by World Bank
-Challenges: Who has a right to participate? How can we be sure that this group has an objective perspective? Sometimes issues are not addressed based on donor requirements

14

4 poverty traps

1) Conflict trap
2) Natural resource trap
3) Geographical trap
4) Governance trap

15

Conflict -poverty trap

-Political instability
-Warlord governance
-Continues civil wars
-Ongoing military coups
-Social disruption
-Trade disruption
-Infrastructure destruction

16

Natural Resource- poverty trap

-Excessive dependence on natural resources
-Exploit one resource, ignore others
-Periods of boom and bust
-Fuels corruption and weak governance
-Weak law and infrastructure
-Exploitation by the West?

17

Geography- poverty trap

-Landlocked and bad neighbours
-40 percent of bottom billion are landlocked
-Neighbours must have infrastructure
-Neighbours of war-torn states

18

Governance- poverty trap

-Dysfunctional democracies
-Authoritarian states
-Corruption and patronage
-Elite politics
-Weak taxation system
-Lack of investment

19

Global consequences of poverty

-Human trafficking
-Migration, Refugees, IDPs
-Gender imbalances (female infanticide)
-Reduction in productivity
-Violence, crime and corruption
-Terrorism and political

20

conflict: symmetric war

conflicting states with equal might

21

conflict: civil war

state against internal actor (rebel group)

22

conflict: interstate war

2 or more states engaged in war

23

conflict: intrastate war

internal (competing rebel groups)

24

protracted conflict

continuous, complex, destructive (Israel-Palestine conflict)

25

conflict: complex emergencies

protracted inter or intrastate conflict exposed to a humanitarian crisis (Somalia)

26

Westphalian security

-External intervention is illegal
-State sovereignty is a right
-Pluralism (political regimes)
-Protection of weak states
-Intervention imposes values
-Intervention undermines UN Charter

27

Post-Westphalian security

-Human rights focused (politically driven)
-Internally displaced persons (IDPs) as driver
-Focuses on democracy, economics, rights
-Shift from the state to the individual
-Responsibility can trump sovereignty
-Responsibility to protect (R2P) doctrine emerges as latest concept

28

Culture differentialism

cultures are different despite trends:
- Civilizations (Huntington)
- Religion (Islam, Christianity, etc)
- Language (English, Chinese, Arabic, French, Spanish)
- Territory/Regions (Asia, Europe, etc)

29

cultural convergence

fault lines between cultures are narrowing:
- Increased sameness (McDonalds in HK or dabbawallas in Mumbai)
- Cultural Imperialism (manufacturing in Bangladesh)
- Deterritorialization (Outsourcing, subcontracting)
- World culture theory

30

cultural hybridization

new forms of hybrid culture are emerging:
- (eg. Muslim Girl Scouts)
- "Glocalization": Interpretation of the global and the local resulting in unique outcomes