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Bilateral Aid

Aid is given by the government of one country directly to another. It can be given in five types:
Tied aid, Untied aid, Food aid, Technical assistance, Emergency aid


Tied Aid

Aid is given for a specific purpose e.g. building materials for a new school.


Untied aid

Money is given for the receivers to spend it as they wish.


Food aid

Food is given to countries in urgent need of food supplies, especially if they have just experienced a natural disaster.


Technical assistance

Professionals, such as doctors, are moved into developing countries to assist with a programme of development


Emergency aid

This is given to countries in the event of a natural disaster or human event, like war, and includes basic food supplies, clothing and shelter.


3 Types of Poverty

Absolute, moderate, relative


3 waves of aid and development

1. Statist top-down mega projects (1945-1975)

2. Structural Adjustment Programs (1970s-1990)

3.Bottom-up pluralism (1990s – present)


4 Approaches to Poverty

1) Monetary Approach
2) Capability Approach
3) Social Exclusion Approach
4) Participatory Methods


Monetary Approach to Poverty

-Basic income approach measured
-Nutritional requirements of ‘individual’ is key to approach
-Primary and secondary poverty (Rowntree)
-Include private resources (income), not public (school)
-Critique: What about neglected members of the household? Also, the utility of differentiating between poverty and core poverty


Capability approach to poverty

-Human capabilities and functioning (Freedom)
-Identifying the so-called ‘good-life’
-Individualist approach to poverty
-Human Development Index (UN)
-Challenges: Measuring could be seen as subjective


social exclusion approach to poverty

-Explores marginalization and depravation
-Focuses on relativity, agency and future dynamics
-Sees poverty as a process and tends to focus on groups
-Explores the dynamics of the excluders and the excludees
-Multidimensionality and depravation (more than one)
-Challenges: Relative nature of the method and precision in finding a clear definition


Participatory methods approach to poverty

-Encourage populations to assess their own poverty
-Internal rather than external assessment
-Self-determination and empowerment
-Improve anti-poverty drives and support mutual learning
-Method often used by World Bank
-Challenges: Who has a right to participate? How can we be sure that this group has an objective perspective? Sometimes issues are not addressed based on donor requirements


4 poverty traps

1) Conflict trap
2) Natural resource trap
3) Geographical trap
4) Governance trap


Conflict -poverty trap

-Political instability
-Warlord governance
-Continues civil wars
-Ongoing military coups
-Social disruption
-Trade disruption
-Infrastructure destruction


Natural Resource- poverty trap

-Excessive dependence on natural resources
-Exploit one resource, ignore others
-Periods of boom and bust
-Fuels corruption and weak governance
-Weak law and infrastructure
-Exploitation by the West?


Geography- poverty trap

-Landlocked and bad neighbours
-40 percent of bottom billion are landlocked
-Neighbours must have infrastructure
-Neighbours of war-torn states


Governance- poverty trap

-Dysfunctional democracies
-Authoritarian states
-Corruption and patronage
-Elite politics
-Weak taxation system
-Lack of investment


Global consequences of poverty

-Human trafficking
-Migration, Refugees, IDPs
-Gender imbalances (female infanticide)
-Reduction in productivity
-Violence, crime and corruption
-Terrorism and political


conflict: symmetric war

conflicting states with equal might


conflict: civil war

state against internal actor (rebel group)


conflict: interstate war

2 or more states engaged in war


conflict: intrastate war

internal (competing rebel groups)


protracted conflict

continuous, complex, destructive (Israel-Palestine conflict)


conflict: complex emergencies

protracted inter or intrastate conflict exposed to a humanitarian crisis (Somalia)


Westphalian security

-External intervention is illegal
-State sovereignty is a right
-Pluralism (political regimes)
-Protection of weak states
-Intervention imposes values
-Intervention undermines UN Charter


Post-Westphalian security

-Human rights focused (politically driven)
-Internally displaced persons (IDPs) as driver
-Focuses on democracy, economics, rights
-Shift from the state to the individual
-Responsibility can trump sovereignty
-Responsibility to protect (R2P) doctrine emerges as latest concept


Culture differentialism

cultures are different despite trends:
- Civilizations (Huntington)
- Religion (Islam, Christianity, etc)
- Language (English, Chinese, Arabic, French, Spanish)
- Territory/Regions (Asia, Europe, etc)


cultural convergence

fault lines between cultures are narrowing:
- Increased sameness (McDonalds in HK or dabbawallas in Mumbai)
- Cultural Imperialism (manufacturing in Bangladesh)
- Deterritorialization (Outsourcing, subcontracting)
- World culture theory


cultural hybridization

new forms of hybrid culture are emerging:
- (eg. Muslim Girl Scouts)
- "Glocalization": Interpretation of the global and the local resulting in unique outcomes