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Flashcards in Islam Deck (17):

How has Sufism, generally contributed to the development of Islam?

Sufism has attracted many converts e.g. Africa, Asia
It established orders and housing for pilgrims
Rejects legalism and literalism of Islam, refocuses Islam towards mystical experience of God


How has Sufism, generally contributed to the expression of Islam?

Developed an intellectual culture across the Islamic Empire
Facilitated deep insights into regular prayer and Qur'an recitations
Encouraged detachment from material wealth
Encouraged mysticism, meditation, spirituality
Introduced Dervish


How has Sufism, generally impacted Islam?

Introduced mysticism, affected how Islam is understood
Attracted many non-Muslims to Islam
Introduced a lot of culture e.g. Music, paintings, poetry, literature


What are the 4 main sources of ethics in Islam?

1. The Qur'an
2. The Sunna
3. The Ijma
4. The Qiyas


Account for the diversity of view surrounding Islamic sexual ethics

There various schools of Jurisprudence e.g. Sunni, Sharia
There are differing sects of Islam
Cultural backgrounds of Muslims across the world differ
Differing levels of religious observance also change ethical attitudes


What are the Islamic views on Marriage and Sexuality?

Marriage is encouraged, as it restrains sexuality, orders domestic life, expands family and encourages responsible care for children
Sexuality is saved for one's partner
No contraception, though polygamy is accepted in certain conditions
No sex outside of marriage/adultery


What are the Islamic views on female freedoms?

Women can choose who to marry
They are encouraged to marry another Muslim


What are the Islamic views on Divorce?

It should be a last resort
Must be equitable, with 2 witnesses
Sunni tradition allows for divorce by saying "I divorce you" x3


What are the Islamic views on Homosexuality?

The consensus is that all are naturally heterosexual
There is evidence of homosexuality in the Qur'an
Hadith recognises homosexuality as a grave sin


What are the Islamic views on Gender Issues?

Islamic gender roles aren't about equality, but are complimentary
Women are in the private space of the home
Men are in the public space of work/society


What is Islamic Jurisprudence?

They are the basic Islamic ethical principles:
1. The Permissibility of Things
2. To make laws or prohibit is the right of Allah
3. Prohibition is due to the impurity/harm of the activity
4. Halal is sufficient, Haram is superfluous
5. Whatever is conducive to Haram is also Haram


Overall, what is Hajj? What does it involve?

In Arabic it means "to embark out for a place". It is an annual pilgrimage to Meccah from the 8th-13th of Dhu'l Hijjah, where Muslims visit holy places and perform rituals. It is also the 5th pillar of Islam, and so encourages all Muslims to go at least once, although those unable to do so don't have to or may send a representative.


What are the main elements of Hajj?

Ihraam- Muslims wear a 2 pieced white cloth
Tawaf- Muslims circumambulate the Ka'bah x7
Sa'y- the fast walk between Safa/Marwah
Visits to Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah- stay/pray in these places, wuquf
Jumraat- stoning the 3 pillars in Mina
Shaving- Muslims shave/trim their hair
Eid- sacrifice an animal and give the meat to the poor as Zakat


How is Hajj linked to Abraham?

Abraham apparently left Hagar and Ishmael at Mecca, where Hagar ran from Safa to Marwa for water for Ishmael, eventually finding zamzam (sacred water).
Abraham is still considered the father of Monotheism by Muslims
The Ka'bah signifies the Tawhid


How do the main elements of the Hajj express Islamic beliefs?

Ihraam- encourages equality amongst Muslims, Ummah, purity, materially equal like on the Day of Judgement
Tawaf- 7 days of Creation, tawhid
Sa'y- recognises Hagar/Ishmael's journey
Visits to Mina/Arafat/Muzdalifah- Mohammad visited these places, Muslims ask for forgiveness at Mt Arafat like Adam and Eve
Jumraat- Mohammad visited/hit the Devil
Shaving- like purity of birth, like Day of Judgement
Eid- no more human sacrifice (Abraham and Isaac), Zakat


How is Hajj significant for the individual?

Affirms relationship with God- journey is about Tawhid, tawaf, wuquf
Forgiveness- journey assists in personal Jihad, you pray for forgiveness at Arafat, stoning the devil
Teachers stories of God in history - follow footsteps of Hagar/Ishmael, acknowledging Abraham sacrificing Ishmael
Straight Path- reminder that all are equal before God on the Day of Judgement, with the visit to Arafat as practice


How is Hajj significant for the Islamic community?

Public statement- Muslims declare their faith
Multiracial harmony- race, gender, colour aren't important, unity/equality with Ihraam
Engenders pride- being a part of the Ummah, diversity/unity of the large Islamic Community
Inspires community at home- family/community support pilgrim leaving, they also celebrate some of the Hajj rituals e.g. Eid