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Flashcards in Post-1945 Australia Deck (24):

What are the 3 main aspects of Aboriginal Spiritualitis?

Obligations to the land and people
Aboriginal Ceremonial Life


What does Kinship involve?

Overall it establishes the relationships/responsibilities to the Land and People
Clans define someone's role and familial position
Connection to the land defines totems, and caretaker role
Behaviour sets up skin groupings and acceptable adult behaviour


What does Aboriginal Ceremonial Life involve?

It reaffirms the living's place in unity with nature.
It includes periodic ceremonies to appease spirits and ensure continuity of food sources e.g. Hunting rituals
Or rites of passage which Mark the stages in an individual's life


What are involved in the Indigenous obligations to the land and people?

These are essentially the ethics determined by the Dreaming which manifest in Aboriginal Law
Marriage Laws- skin groupings/punishments
Keeping the land alive


What are the 6 government policies that dispossessed Aboriginals and separated them from their culture?

1. Dispossession- legally separated people from their land
2. Missions- Christian Churches removed culture, gave handouts,
3. Protection/segregation- forcibly taken away/under govt control
4. Assimilation- same rights but children were 'brainwashed'
5. Self-determination- working with them, not for them
6. Stolen Generations- (1915-1970), children taken away and brainwashed in institutions, adopted, often abused


What have been the effects of the Stolen Generation and Dispossession on Aboriginal people today?

The Stolen Generations were separated from their family/land and were often abused- they now suffer from many psychological issues and lost a great deal of their culture/oral traditions/ceremonies
Dispossession has denied connection to the land/dreaming, broke up kinship groups, destroyed ceremonial life


What are the major dates in the Land Rights movement?

1992- Mabo Desicion, introduced Native Title, abolished Terra Nullius
1993- Native Title Act becomes Federal Law
1996- Wik Desicion, Native Title may co-exist with pastoral leases, each case must be tried
1998- Native Title Amendment Act encourages more negotiation, more flexibility, states legislate their own regimes


What is the significance of the Dreaming in the Land Rights movement?

Land Rights allowed access to sacred sites/ancestral lands
Connection to Dreaming places aided Legal proceedings
Dreaming sense of ownership =/= white sense of ownership, helped solve problems/compromise
Secrecy of the Dreaming made it difficult to prove connection to the land


What generally does the census data say about the religious landscape in post-1945 Australia?

1. More Catholic, Orthodox, but less Protestant
2. More non-Christian religious adherents
3. More "No Religion"
4. More Pentecostals
5. Lower youth attendance- except in Pentecostal
6. Lower Mainstream Church attendance


What has happened to Christianity as a major religious tradition in post-1945 Australia?

There has been an overall decline
The white colonisation and White Australia Policy have kept it the most prominent religious tradition
Although "No Religion" has risen according to the census data, possibly due to less youth attendance and deaths with older attendants


How has post-war migration affected Australia's religious landscape?

Australia's abolishment of the White Australia policy encouraged a boom of immigrants from Europe, the Middle East and Asia
Multiculturalism has greatly increased foreign immigrants from Anglican and Orthodox traditions as well as others including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism


How has denominational switching affected the post-war Australian religious landscape?

This involves the rise/fall of Christian denominations
People who switch focus on self-fulfilment rather than denominational loyalty- many join the Pentecostals as they're more light hearted/lively
People often become dissatisfied due to the services being boring, the views being too conservative, or low attendance


How has Secularism affected the post-war Australian religious landscape?

Secularism is when religion is separated from state functions or in fact is taken over by them.
"No Religion" has increase pain the census- due to either their simply low attendance or lack of belief, often caused by boring Church processes, clashing beliefs, other commitments, or technical issues


How have 'New Age' spiritualities impacted the post-war Australian Religious Landscape?

New Age spiritualities focus on self-fulfilment. They're often mystical, non-conventional and personalised.
People have converted due to postmodern disillusionment, social change, questioning institutions, or for further spiritual insight
E.g. Crystal Healing, Fung Shui, Wicca


What is the Ecumenical Movement and why has it occurred?

This movement encourages the promotion of unity amongst the Christian denominations. This has occurred due to:
1. An appreciation of social harmony
2. A rejection of universal truths/conservative elitism
3. Growing secularism encouraging collaboration


What are some examples of Ecumenical Organisations and what do they do?

National Council of Churches- deepen relations amongst denominations by collaborating in commission work, govt submissions and aid work
NSW Ecumenical Council- Churches celebrate/unify to understand other faiths, disseminate ecumenical literature, promote Ecumenical events, collaborative aid work


What is Interfaith Dialogue and why has it occurred?

This is when 2 or more religious traditions cooperate to achieve a better understanding/tolerance between each other. It has occurred due to:
1. Increasing pluralism in Australia with immigrants/multiculturalism
2. International Issues like 9/11, or other disasters
3. Reforms within religions that promote cooperation


What are some examples of Interfaith Organisations?

Affinity Intercultural Foundation
Columbus Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations
Australian Council of Christians and Jews
Centre for Christianity and Culture
Parliament of World Religions


What are some Interfaith Initiatives?

Dealing with social issues e.g. abortions or pregnancies
Aiding in times of crisis through shared mass, prayer, support e.g. Refugees, Bali Bombings, Disaster victims
The International Games where a team of spiritual leaders join


What are the criticisms made of Interfaith Dialogue?

Reverend Phillip Jensen (2003)- argued faiths were incompatible
2 Evangelical Christian Ministers (2005)- refused to apologise after denouncing Islam as false
Cardinal George Pell (2006)- criticises the Qur'an and Islam, condemning their violence, intolerance and history


What is the 'Process of Reconciliation' in the context of post-1945 Australia?

It is the acknowledgement by various groups of the injustices done to Indigenous Australians


How have the individual Christian Churches approached the Process of Reconciliation?

Catholic- Pope JPII supports it, provided Caritas aid,
Anglican- '98 Great Synod supports it, funds NATSIEC, Indigenous bishops, special services
Protestant- National Assembly Apology '94, Uniting Church held Conference for Aboriginals/Torres Strait Islanders


How have Non-Indigenous Beliefs integrated with Aboriginal Spirituality?

There has been an attempt to 'synchronise' Christianity with Aboriginal spiritual ideas. They contextualise theology e.g. indigenous symbols, rituals to express Christianity. Aboriginal theology attempts to radically combine spiritualities e.g. Rainbow Spirit Theology
There have also been: local language services, use of Indigenous art/land symbols/rituals/dance/music in Church, integration of beliefs


What has been the impact of Aboriginal al Spirituality on Religious Traditions?

This home-grown spirituality can enrich White Australia, particularly through their sense of harmony/Dreaming and connection to the land.
Some of their rituals have been included in Christian tradition- used to celebrate life/rich heritage, used smoking and water ceremonies as purification rituals in the Eucharist and funerals