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explain Sufism’s contribution to the development

and expression of Islam

  • brought an inner dimension of Islam, focusing on spiritual growth and a mystical experience, allowing for a deeper connection with Allah
  • allowed for easier completion of Takwa (becoming cognizant and accepting God) via whirling dervishes
  • music, art and poetry (Rumi)
  • meditation as a form of prayer
  • way to express closeness with Allah through music, dance e.g. whirling dervishes.

Analyse the impact of Sufism on Islam (positive and negative)



  • promotion of unity within all Muslim community, emphasising spirituality and peace “if they keep aloof and do not fight, offer peace”
  • brings a deeper meaning to requirements of prayer and Qur’an reciting, e.g. whirling dervishes “wherever you turn there is the face of Allah”


  • religious disagreement on dhikr, as traditional Muslims see it placing importance on emotions, not prayers undermining the religion
  • oppression of Sufism due to disagreement, traditional Muslims see it as ‘un-Islamic’

describe and explain Islamic ethical teachings on sexual ethics


Guidelines for Muslim place great stress on the individual as well as the community

-Islam is pro-family and children are a gift from god
-Any contraception is understood in context of married couple, most Muslim authorities permit contraception to preserve health of the mother or wellbeing of the family
- Allows adherents to ‘do what is natural’ hence up-keeping ethical teachings
“You should not kill your children for fear of want”


  • prohibited in Islam “Do you approach males among you,”
  • although should not be seen as sinners, “For Allah forgives all sins”
  • adherence to this shows adherents obeying shari’a law, upholding Islamic ethical teachings

-is a mustahab (recommended) practice, a gift from Allah, as nikah (MARRIAGE) is considered the fabric which holds society together, strengthening in the ummah (community) which is vital in the maintenance of islamic ethical teachigns.
“glory be to Him Who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows”
-sexual relations seen as a vital part of marriage, in the right context seen as beautiful act, showing adherents properly promoting unity and harmony, hence ethical teachings
“he created mates for you, that you may find rest in them”


Describe Hajj as a significant practice within Islam


Hajj is “a duty owed to God by all people who are able to undertake it”
The hajj is the fifth pillar of Islamic belief and practice. It is an expression of submission to Allah and is all directed by Allah’s word

IHRAM - spiritually clean state required for hajj
Tawaf - circling the Ka’ba 7 times, symbolising how life revolves around Allah
Mount Arafat - after sunrise, Pilgrims gather at Arafat, using the time to pray and reflect on their journey.


demonstrate how Hajj expresses the

beliefs of Islam


GLORIFICATION AND PRAISE OF GOD - during Tawaf, pilgrims say ‘just as we are circling the one and only Ka’ba, the oldest place of worship on earth, we only obey you the absolute one worthy of worship”

BELIEF IN THE PROPHETS AND DIVINE BOOKS- completion of Hajj allow adherents to follow the teachings of the holy books, due to directions about Hajj coming from these books (Qur’an)

BELIEF IN JUDGEMENT DAY - One’s sins are removed and forgiven at Hajj, allowing adherents to enter the proper spiritual position for judgment day.


Analyse the significance of Hajj for

both the individual and the Muslim community



  • The focus of the hajj is submission to Allah, the peace that comes with that comfort’s adherents, developing strong god consciousness “When you file from `Arafat, you shall commemorate God”
  • The hajj requires adherents to exit their comfort zone, forcing them to let go of the familiar and comfortable, building them as a person and allowing for absolute submission to Allah.


  • having a larger percentage of its following involved in the active participation within the religion, instead of individuals completing a lonely journey
  • realise the universality of their religion as they see Muslims from all over the world,