Isms Flashcards Preview

language > Isms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Isms Deck (107):
1

Absolutism

doctrine of government by a single absolute ruler; autocracy

2

Absurdism

doctrine that we live in an irrational universe

3

Academicism

doctrine that nothing can be known

4

Accidentalism

theory that events do not have causes

5

Acosmism

disbelief in existence of eternal universe distinct from God

6

Adamitism

nakedness for religious reasons

7

Adevism

denial of gods of mythology and legend

8

Adiaphorism

doctrine of theological indifference or latitudinarianism

9

Adoptionism

belief that Christ was the adopted and not natural son of God

10

aestheticism

doctrine that beauty is central to other moral principles

11

Agapism

ethics of love

12

Agathism

belief in ultimate triumph of good despite evil means

13

Agnosticism

doctrine that we can know nothing beyond material phenomena

14

Animism

attribution of soul to inanimate objects

15

Anthropotheism

belief that gods are only deified men

16

Antidisestablishmentarianism

doctrine opposed to removing Church of England's official religion status

17

Antilapsarianism

denial of doctrine of the fall of humanity

18

Antinomianism

doctrine of the rejection of moral law

19

Antipedobaptism

denial of validity of infant baptism

20

Apocalypticism

doctrine of the imminent end of the world

21

Aspheterism

denial of the right to private property

22

Atheism

belief that there is no God

23

Atomism

belief that the universe consists of small indivisible particles

24

Autosoterism

belief that one can obtain salvation through oneself

25

Autotheism

belief that one is God incarnate or that one is Christ

26

Bitheism

belief in two gods

27

Bonism

the doctrine that the world is good but not perfect

28

Bullionism

belief in the importance of metallic currency in economics

29

Casualism

the belief that chance governs all things

30

Catabaptism

belief in the wrongness of infant baptism

31

Catastrophism

belief in rapid geological and biological change

32

Collectivism

doctrine of communal control of means of production

33

Collegialism

theory that church is independent from the state

34

Conceptualism

theory that universal truths exist as mental concepts

35

Conservatism

belief in maintaining political and social traditions

36

Cosmism

belief that the cosmos is a self-existing whole

37

Cosmotheism

the belief that identifies God with the cosmos

38

Deism

belief in God but rejection of religion

39

Determinism

doctrine that events are predetermined by preceding events or laws

40

Diphysitism

belief in the dual nature of Christ

41

Ditheism

belief in two equal gods
Ditheletism doctrine that Christ had two wills
Dualism doctrine that the universe is controlled by one good and one evil force
Egalitarianism belief that humans ought to be equal in rights and privileges
Egoism doctrine that the pursuit of self-interest is the highest good
Egotheism identification of oneself with God
Eidolism belief in ghosts
Emotivism theory that moral statements are inherently biased
Entryism doctrine of joining a group to change its policies
Epiphenomenalism doctrine that mental processes are epiphenomena of brain activity
Eternalism the belief that matter has existed eternally
Eudaemonism ethical belief that happiness equals morality
Euhemerism explanation of mythology as growing out of history
Existentialism doctrine of individual human responsibility in an unfathomable universe
Experientialism doctrine that knowledge comes from experience
Fallibilism the doctrine that empirical knowledge is uncertain
Fatalism doctrine that events are fixed and humans are powerless
Fideism doctrine that knowledge depends on faith over reason
Finalism belief that an end has or can be reached
Fortuitism belief in evolution by chance variation
Functionalism doctrine emphasising utility and function
Egocentrism belief that Earth is the centre of the universe
Gnosticism belief that freedom derives solely from knowledge
Gradualism belief that things proceed by degrees
Gymnobiblism belief that the Bible can be presented to unlearned without commentary
Hedonism belief that pleasure is the highest good
Henism doctrine that there is only one kind of existence
Henotheism belief in one tribal god

42

Historicism

belief that all phenomena are historically determined

43

Holism

belief that fundamental universal principle is creation of wholes

44

Holobaptism

belief in baptism with total immersion in water

45

Humanism

belief that human interests and mind are paramount

46

Hylicism

materialism

47

Hylomorphism

belief that matter is cause of the universe

48

Hylopathism

belief in ability of matter to affect the spiritual world

49

hylotheism

belief that the universe is purely material

50

hylozoism

doctrine that all matter is endowed with life

51

illuminism

belief in an inward spiritual light

52

illusionism

belief that the external world is philosophy

53

imagism

doctrine of use of precise images with unrestricted subject

54

immanentism

belief in an immanent or permanent god

55

immaterialism

the doctrine that there is no material substance

56

immoralism

rejection of morality

57

indifferentism

the belief that all religions are equally valid

58

individualism

belief that individual interests and rights are paramount

59

instrumentalism

doctrine that ideas are instruments of action

60

intellectualism

belief that all knowledge is derived from reason

61

interactionism

belief that mind and body act on each other

62

introspectionism

doctrine that knowledge of mind must derive from introspection

63

intuitionism

belief that the perception of truth is by intuition

64

kathenotheism

polytheism in which each god is considered single and supreme

65

kenotism

doctrine that Christ rid himself of divinity in becoming human

66

laicism

doctrine of opposition to clergy and priests

67

latitudinarianism

doctrine of broad liberality in religious belief and conduct

68

laxism

belief that an unlikely opinion may be safely followed

69

legalism

belief that salvation depends on strict adherence to the law

70

liberalism

doctrine of social change and tolerance

71

libertarianism

doctrine that personal liberty is the highest value

72

malism

the belief that the world is evil

73

materialism

belief that matter is the only extant substance

74

mechanism

belief that life is explainable by mechanical forces

75

meliorism

the belief the world tends to become better

76

mentalism

belief that the world can be explained as aspect of the mind

77

messianism

belief in a single messiah or saviour

78

millenarianism

belief that an ideal society will be produced in the near future

79

modalism

belief in unity of Father
monadism theory that there exist ultimate units of being
monergism theory that the Holy Spirit alone can act
monism belief that all things can be placed in one category
monophysitism belief that Christ was primarily divine but in human form
monopsychism belief that individuals have a single eternal soul
monotheism belief in only one God
monotheletism belief that Christ had only one will
mortalism belief that the soul is mortal
mutualism belief in mutual dependence of society and the individual
nativism belief that the mind possesses inborn thoughts
naturalism belief that the world can be explained in terms of natural forces
necessarianism theory that actions are determined by prior history; fatalism
neonomianism theory that the gospel abrogates earlier moral codes
neovitalism theory that total material explanation is impossible
nihilism denial of all reality; extreme scepticism
nominalism doctrine that naming of things defines reality
nomism view that moral conduct consists in observance of laws
noumenalism belief in existence of noumena
nullibilism denial that the soul exists in space
numenism belief in local deities or spirits
objectivism doctrine that all reality is objective
omnism belief in all religions
optimism doctrine that we live in the best of all possible worlds
organicism conception of life or society as an organism
paedobaptism doctrine of infant baptism
panaesthetism theory that consciousness may inhere generally in matter
pancosmism theory that the material universe is all that exists
panegoism solipsism
panpsychism theory that all nature has a psychic side
pansexualism theory that all thought derived from sexual instinct
panspermatism belief in origin of life from extraterrestrial germs
pantheism belief that the universe is God; belief in many gods
panzoism belief that humans and animals share vital life energy
pejorism severe pessimism
perfectibilism doctrine that humans capable of becoming perfect
perfectionism doctrine that moral perfection constitutes the highest value
personalism doctrine that humans possess spiritual freedom
pessimism doctrine that the universe is essentially evil
phenomenalism belief that phenomena are the only realities
physicalism belief that all phenomena reducible to verifiable assertions
physitheism attribution of physical form and attributes to deities
pluralism belief that reality consists of several kinds or entities
polytheism belief in multiple deities
positivism doctrine that that which is not observable is not knowable
pragmatism doctrine emphasizing practical value of philosophy
predestinarianism belief that what ever is to happen is already fixed
prescriptivism belief that moral edicts are merely orders with no truth value
primitivism doctrine that a simple and natural life is morally best
privatism attitude of avoiding involvement in outside interests
probabiliorism belief that when in doubt one must choose most likely answer
probabilism belief that knowledge is always probable but never absolute
psilanthropism denial of Christ's divinity
psychism belief in universal soul
psychomorphism doctrine that inanimate objects have human mentality
psychopannychism belief souls sleep from death to resurrection
psychotheism doctrine that God is a purely spiritual entity
pyrrhonism total or radical skepticism
quietism doctrine of enlightenment through mental tranquility
racism belief that race is the primary determinant of human capacities
realism doctrine that objects of cognition are real
reductionism belief that complex phenomena are reducible to simple ones
regalism doctrine of the monarch's supremacy in church affairs
representationalism doctrine that ideas rather than external objects are basis of knowledge
republicanism belief that a republic is the best form of government
romanticism belief in sentimental feeling in artistic expression
sacerdotalism belief that priests are necessary mediators between God and mankind
sacramentarianism belief that sacraments have unusual properties
scientism belief that the methods of science are universally applicable
self-determinism doctrine that the actions of a self are determined by itself
sensationalism belief that ideas originate solely in sensation
siderism belief that the stars influence human affairs
skepticism doctrine that true knowledge is always uncertain
socialism doctrine of centralized state control of wealth and property
solarism excessive use of solar myths in explaining mythology
solifidianism doctrine that faith alone will ensure salvation
solipsism theory that self-existence is the only certainty
somatism materialism
spatialism doctrine that matter has only spatial

80

spiritualism

belief that nothing is real except the soul or spirit

81

stercoranism

belief that the consecrated Eucharist is digested and evacuated

82

stoicism

belief in indifference to pleasure or pain

83

subjectivism

doctrine that all knowledge is subjective

84

substantialism

belief that there is a real existence underlying phenomena

85

syndicalism

doctrine of direct worker control of capital

86

synergism

belief that human will and divine spirit cooperate in salvation

87

terminism

doctrine that there is a time limit for repentance

88

thanatism

belief that the soul dies with the body

89

theism

belief in the existence of God without special revelation

90

theocentrism

belief that God is central fact of existence

91

theopantism

belief that God is the only reality

92

theopsychism

belief that the soul is of a divine nature

93

thnetopsychism

belief that the soul dies with the body
titanism spirit of revolt or defiance against social conventions
tolerationism doctrine of toleration of religious differences
totemism belief that a group has a special kinship with an object or animal
transcendentalism theory that emphasizes that which transcends perception
transmigrationism belief that soul passes into other body at death
trialism doctrine that humans have three separate essences (body

94

tritheism

belief that the members of the Trinity are separate gods

95

triumphalism

belief in the superiority of one particular religious creed

96

tuism

theory that individuals have a second or other self

97

tutiorism

doctrine that one should take the safer moral course

98

tychism

theory that accepts role of pure chance

99

ubiquitarianism

belief that Christ is everywhere

100

undulationism

theory that light consists of waves

101

universalism

belief in universal salvation

102

utilitarianism

belief that utility of actions determines moral value

103

vitalism

the doctrine that there is a vital force behind life

104

voluntarism

belief that the will dominates the intellect

105

zoism

doctrine that life originates from a single vital principle

106

zoomorphism

conception of a god or man in animal form

107

zootheism

attribution of divine qualities to animals