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Flashcards in ITIL 4 Foundation Glossary Deck (220)
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1

A list of minimum requirements that a service or service component must meet for it to be acceptable to key stakeholders.

Acceptance criteria

2

An umbrella term for a collection of frameworks and techniques that together enable teams and individuals to work in a way that is typified by collaboration, prioritization, iterative and incremental delivery, and timeboxing. There are several specific methods (or frameworks) that are classed as Agile, such as Scrum, Lean, and Kanban.

Agile

3

The practice of providing an understanding of all the different elements that make up an organization and how those elements relate to one another.

Architecture management practice

4

A database or list of assets capturing key attributes such as ownership and financial value.

Asset register

5

The ability of an IT service or other configuration item to perform its agreed function when required.

Availability

6

The practice of ensuring that services deliver agreed levels of availability to meet the needs of customers and users.

Availability management practice

7

A report or metric that serves as a starting point against which progress or change can be assessed.

Baseline

8

A way of working that has been proven to be successful by multiple organizations.

Best practice

9

The use of very large volumes of structured and unstructured data from a variety of sources to gain new insights.

Big data

10

The practice of analysing a business or some element of a business, defining its needs and recommending solutions to address these needs and/or solve a business problem, and create value for stakeholders.

Business analysis practice

11

A justification for expenditure of organizational resources, providing information about costs, benefits, options, risks, and issues.

Business case

12

A key activity in the practice of service continuity management that identifies vital business functions and their dependencies.

Business Impact Analysis (BIA)

13

A role responsible for maintaining good relationships with one or more customers

Business Relationship Manager (BRM)

14

An interaction (e.g. a telephone call) with the service desk, which could result in an incident or a service request being logged.

Call

15

An organization or business unit that handles large numbers of incoming and outgoing calls and other interactions.

Call/contact centre

16

The ability of an organization, person, process, application, configuration item, or IT service to carry out an activity.

Capability

17

The practice of ensuring that services achieve agreed and expected performance levels, satisfying current and future demand in a cost-effective way.

Capacity and performance management practice

18

The activity of creating a plan that manages resources to meet demand for services

Capacity planning

19

The addition, modification, or removal of anything that could have a direct or indirect effect on services

Change

20

A person or group responsible for authorizing a change.

Change authority

21

The practice of ensuring that risks are properly assessed, authorizing changes to proceed and managing a change schedule in order to maximize the number of successful service and product changes.

Change control practice

22

A repeatable approach to the management of a particular type of change

Change model

23

A calendar that shows planned and historical changes

Change schedule

24

The activity that assigns a price for services.

Charging

25

A model for enabling on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provided with minimal management effort or provider interaction.

Cloud computing

26

The act of ensuring that a standard or set of guidelines is followed, or that proper, consistent accounting or other practices are being employed.

Compliance

27

A security objective that ensures information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized entities.

Confidentiality

28

An arrangement of configuration items (CIs) or other resources that work together to deliver a product or service. Can also be used to describe the parameter settings for one or more CIs.

Configuration

29

Any component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT service.

Configuration Item (CI)

30

A database used to store configuration records throughout their lifecycle. The CMDB also maintains the relationships between configuration records.

Configuration Management Database (CMDB)

31

A record containing the details of a configuration item (CI). Each configuration record documents the lifecycle of a single CI. Configuration records are stored in a configuration management database.

Configuration record

32

The practice of aligning an organization’s practices and services with changing business needs through the ongoing identification and improvement of all elements involved in the effective management of products and services.

Continual improvement practice

33

An integrated set of practices and tools used to deploy software changes into the production environment. These software changes have already passed predefined automated tests.

Continuous deployment

34

An integrated set of practices and tools used to merge developers’ code, build and test the resulting software, and package it so that it is ready for deployment.

Continuous integration/continuous delivery

35

The means of managing a risk, ensuring that a business objective is achieved, or that a process is followed.

Control

36

The amount of money spent on a specific activity or resource.

Cost

37

A business unit or project to which costs are assigned.

Cost centre

38

A necessary precondition for the achievement of intended results.

Critical success factor (CSF)

39

A set of values that is shared by a group of people, including expectations about how people should behave, ideas, beliefs, and practices.

Culture

40

A role that defines the requirements for a service and takes responsibility for the outcomes of service consumption.

Customer

41

The sum of functional and emotional interactions with a service and service provider as perceived by a service consumer.

Customer experience (CX)

42

A real-time graphical representation of data. 

Dashboard

43

The value chain activity that ensures services are delivered and supported according to agreed specifications and stakeholders’ expectations.

Deliver and support

44

Input to the service value system based on opportunities and needs from internal and external stakeholders.

Demand

45

The movement of any service component into any environment. 

Deployment

46

The practice of moving new or changed hardware, software, documentation, processes, or any other service component to live environments.

Deployment management practice

47

The value chain activity that ensures products and services continually meet stakeholder expectations for quality, costs, and time to market.

Design and transition

48

A practical and human-cantered approach used by product and service designers to solve complex problem sand find practical and creative solutions that meet the needs of an organization and its customers.

Design thinking

49

An environment used to create or modify IT services or applications.

Development environment

50

An organizational culture that aims to improve the flow of value to customers. DevOps focuses on culture, automation, Lean, measurement, and sharing (CALMS).

DevOps

51

The evolution of traditional business models to meet the needs of highly empowered customers, with technology playing an enabling role.

Digital transformation

52

A sudden unplanned event that causes great damage or serious loss to an organization. A disaster results in an organization failing to provide critical business functions for some predetermined minimum period.

Disaster

53

A set of clearly defined plans related to how an organization will recover from a disaster as well as return to apre-disaster condition, considering the four dimensions of service management.

Disaster recovery plans

54

Something that influences strategy, objectives, or requirements.

Driver

55

A measure of whether the objectives of a practice, service or activity have been achieved

Effectiveness

56

A measure of whether the right amount of resources have been used by a practice, service, or activity

Efficiency

57

A change that must be introduced as soon as possible

Emergency change

58

The value chain activity that provides a good understanding of stakeholder needs, transparency, continual engagement, and good relationships with all stakeholders.

Engage

59

A subset of the IT infrastructure that is used for a particular purpose, for example a live environment or test environment. Can also mean the external conditions that influence or affect something.

Environment

60

A flaw or vulnerability that may cause incidents

Error

61

Problem management activities used to manage known errors.

Error control

62

The act of sharing awareness or transferring ownership of an issue or work item.

Escalation

63

Any change of state that has significance for the management of a service or other configuration item.

Event

64

A customer who works for an organization other than the service provider

External customer

65

A loss of ability to operate to specification, or to deliver the required output or outcome

Failure

66

A technique whereby the outputs of one part of a system are used as inputs to the same part of the system.

Feedback loop

67

The four perspectives that are critical to the effective and efficient facilitation of value for customers another stakeholders in the form of products and services.

Four dimensions of service management

68

Tangible resources that are transferred or available for transfer from a service provider to a service consumer, together with ownership and associated rights and responsibilities.

Goods

69

The means by which an organization is directed and controlled.

Governance

70

A unique name that is used to identify and grant system access rights to a user, person, or role.

Identity

71

The value chain activity that ensures continual improvement of products, services, and practices across all value chain activities and the four dimensions of service management.

Improve

72

An unplanned interruption to a service or reduction in the quality of a service.

Incident

73

The practice of minimizing the negative impact of incidents by restoring normal service operation as quickly as possible.

Incident management

74

One of the four dimensions of service management. It includes the information and knowledge used to deliver services, and the information and technologies used to manage all aspects of the service value system.

Information and technology

75

The practice of protecting an organization by understanding and managing risks to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.

information security management practice

76

The policy that governs an organization’s approach to information security management. 

Information security policy

77

The practice of overseeing the infrastructure and platforms used by an organization. This enables the monitoring of technology solutions available, including solutions from third parties.

Infrastructure and platform management practice

78

A security objective that ensures information is only modified by authorized personnel and activities.

Integrity

79

A customer who works for the same organization as the service provider

Internal customer

80

The interconnection of devices via the internet that were not traditionally thought of as IT assets, but now include embedded computing capability and network connectivity.

Internet of Things

81

Any financially valuable component that can contribute to the delivery of an IT product or service.

IT asset

82

The practice of planning and managing the full lifecycle of all IT assets

IT asset management practice

83

All the hardware, software, networks, and facilities that are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, manage, and support IT services.

IT infrastructure

84

A service based on the use of information technology.

IT service

85

Best-practice guidance for IT service management.

ITIL

86

Recommendations that can guide an organization in all circumstances, regardless of changes in its goals, strategies, type of work, or management structure.

ITIL guiding principles

87

An operating model for service providers that covers all the key activities required to effectively manage products and services.

ITIL service value chain

88

A method for visualizing work, identifying potential blockages and resource conflicts, and managing work in progress.

Kanban

89

An important metric used to evaluate the success in meeting an objective. 

Key performance indicator (KPI)

90

The practice of maintaining and improving the effective, efficient, and convenient use of information and knowledge across an organization.

Knowledge management practice

91

A problem that has been analysed but has not been resolved.

Known error

92

An approach that focuses on improving workflows by maximizing value through the elimination of waste.

Lean

93

The full set of stages, transitions, and associated statuses in the life of a service, product, practice, or other entity.

Lifecycle

94

Refers to a service or other configuration item operating in the live environment. 

Live

95

A controlled environment used in the delivery of IT services to service consumers

Live environment

96

The ease with which a service or other entity can be repaired or modified.

Maintainability

97

An incident with significant business impact, requiring an immediate coordinated resolution.

Major incident

98

Interrelated or interacting elements that establish policy and objectives and enable the achievement of those objectives.

Management system

99

A measure of the reliability, efficiency and effectiveness of an organization, practice, or process

Maturity

100

A metric of how frequently a service or other configuration item fails.

Mean time between failures (MTBF)

101

A metric of how quickly a service is restored after a failure.

Mean time to restore service (MTRS)

102

The practice of supporting good decision-making and continual improvement by decreasing levels of uncertainty.

Measurement and reporting

103

A measurement or calculation that is monitored or reported for management and improvement.

Metric

104

A short but complete description of the overall purpose and intentions of an organization.

Mission

105

A representation of a system, practice, process, service, or other entity that is used to understand and predict its behaviour and relationships.

Model

106

The activity of creating, maintaining, and utilizing models.

Modelling

107

Repeated observation of a system, practice, process, service, or other entity to detect events and to ensure that the current status is known.

Monitoring

108

The practice of systematically observing services and service components and recording and reporting selected changes of state identified as events.

Monitoring and event management practice

109

The value chain activity that ensures service components are available when and where they are needed, and that they meet agreed specifications.

Obtain or build

110

The routine running and management of an activity, product, service, or other configuration item. 

Operation

111

The hardware and software solutions that detect or cause changes in physical processes through direct monitoring or control of physical devices such as valves, pumps, etc.

Operational technology

112

A person or a group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities, and relationships to achieve its objectives.

Organization

113

The practice of ensuring that changes in an organization are smoothly and successfully implemented and that lasting benefits are achieved by managing the human aspects of the changes.

Organizational change management practice

114

The ability of an organization to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and adapt to unplanned external influences.

Organizational resilience

115

The speed, effectiveness, and efficiency with which an organization operates. It influences time to market, quality, safety, costs, and risks.

Organizational velocity

116

One of the four dimensions of service management. It ensures that the way an organization is structured and managed, as well as its roles, responsibilities, and systems of authority and communication, is well defined and supports its overall strategy and operating model.

Organizations and people

117

A result for a stakeholder enabled by one or more outputs.

Outcome

118

A tangible or intangible deliverable of an activity.

Output

119

The process of having external suppliers provide products and services that were previously provided internally.

Outsourcing

120

One of the four dimensions of service management. It encompasses the relationships an organization has with other organizations that are involved in the design, development, deployment, delivery, support, and/or continual improvement of services.

Partners and suppliers

121

A relationship between two organizations that involves working closely together to achieve common goals and objectives.

Partnership

122

A measure of what is achieved or delivered by a system, person, team, practice, or service

Performance

123

A test implementation of a service with a limited scope in a live environment.

Pilot

124

The value chain activity that ensures a shared understanding of the vision, current status, and improvement direction for all four dimensions and all products and services across an organization.

Plan

125

Formally documented management expectations and intentions used to direct decisions and activities.

Policy

126

The practice of ensuring that an organization has the right mix of programs, projects, products, and services to execute its strategy within its funding and resource constraints.

Portfolio management practice

127

A review after the implementation of a change, to evaluate success and identify opportunities for improvement.

Post-implementation review (PIR)

128

A set of organizational resources designed for performing work or accomplishing an objective.

Practice

129

The practice of reducing the likelihood and impact of incidents by identifying actual and potential causes of incidents and managing workarounds and known errors.

Problem management practice

130

A documented way to carry out an activity or a process

Procedure

131

A set of interrelated or interacting activities that transform inputs into outputs. It takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs. It defines the sequence of actions and their dependencies.

Process

132

A configuration of an organization’s resources designed to offer value for a consumer

Product

133

A set of related projects and activities, and an organization structure created to direct and oversee them.

program

134

A temporary structure that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more outputs (or products) according to an agreed business case.

Project

135

The practice of ensuring that all an organization’s projects are successfully delivered.

Project management practice

136

An improvement that is expected to provide a return on investment in a short period of time with relatively small cost and effort.

Quick win

137

A document stating results achieved and providing evidence of activities performed

Record

138

The activity of returning a configuration item to normal operation after a failure.

Recovery

139

The point to which information used by an activity must be restored to enable the activity to operate on resumption.

Recovery point objective (RPO)

140

The maximum acceptable period of time following a service disruption that can elapse before the lack of business functionality severely impacts the organization.

Recovery time objective (RTO)

141

The practice of establishing and nurturing links between an organization and its stakeholders at strategic and tactical levels.

Relationship management practice

142

A set of tools, data, and information that is used to support service configuration management.

Configuration Management System (CMS)

143

A version of a service or other configuration item, or a collection of configuration items, that is made available for use.

Release

144

The practice of making new and changed services and features available for use.

Release management practice

145

The ability of a product, service, or other configuration item to perform its intended function for a specified period of time or number of cycles.

Reliability

146

A view of the service catalogue, providing details on service requests for existing and new services, which is made available for the user.

Request catalogue

147

A description of a proposed change used to initiate change control

Request for change (RFC)

148

The action of solving an incident or problem.

Resolution

149

A person, or other entity, that is required for the execution of an activity or the achievement of an objective. It can used by an organization may be owned by the organization or used according to an agreement with the owner.

Resource

150

The act of permanently withdrawing a product, service, or other configuration item from use.

Retire

151

A possible event that could cause harm or loss or make it more difficult to achieve objectives. Can also be defined as uncertainty of outcome and can be used in the context of measuring the probability of positive outcomes as well as negative outcomes.

Risk

152

An activity to identify, analyse, and evaluate risks. 

Risk assessment

153

A means of enabling value co-creation by facilitating outcomes that customers want to achieve, without the customer having to manage specific costs and risks.

Service

154

Any action required to deliver a service output to a user. Service actions may be performed by a service provider resource, by service users, or jointly.

Service action

155

A view of all the services provided by an organization. It includes interactions between the services, and service models that describe the structure and dynamics of each service.

Service architecture

156

Structured information about all the services and service offerings of a service provider, relevant for a specific target audience.

Service catalog

157

The practice of providing a single source of consistent information on all services and service offerings and ensuring that it is available to the relevant audience.

Service catalog management practice

158

The practice of ensuring that accurate and reliable information about the configuration of services, and the configuration items that support them, is available when and where needed.

Service configuration management practice

159

Activities performed by an organization to consume services. It includes the management of the consumer's resources needed to use the service, service actions performed by users, and the receiving (acquiring) of goods

Service consumption

160

The practice of ensuring that service availability and performance are maintained at a sufficient level in case of a disaster.

Service continuity management practice

161

The practice of designing products and services that are fit for purpose, fit for use, and that can be delivered by the organization and its ecosystem.

Service design practice

162

The point of communication between the service provider and all its users.

Service desk

163

The practice of capturing demand for incident resolution and service requests.

Service desk practice

164

One or more metrics that define expected or achieved service quality.

Service level

165

A documented agreement between a service provider and a customer that identifies both services required and the expected level of service.

Service level agreement (SLA)

166

The practice of setting clear business-based targets for service performance so that the delivery of a service can be properly assessed, monitored, and managed against these targets.

Service level management practice

167

A set of specialized organizational capabilities for enabling value for customers in the form of services. 

Service management

168

A formal description of one or more services, designed to address the needs of a target consumer group. A service offering may include goods, access to resources, and service actions.

Service offering

169

A role that is accountable for the delivery of a specific service.

Service owner

170

A complete set of products and services that are managed throughout their lifecycles by an organization.

Service portfolio

171

A role performed by an organization in a service relationship to provide services to consumers.

Service provider

172

Activities performed by an organization to provide services. It includes management of the provider's resources, configured to deliver the service; ensuring access to these resources for users; fulfilment of the agreed service actions; service level management; and continual improvement. It may also include the supply of goods.

Service provision

173

A cooperation between a service provider and service consumer. It includes service provision, service consumption, and service relationship management.

Service relationship

174

Joint activities performed by a service provider and a service consumer to ensure continual value co-creation based on agreed and available service offerings.

Service relationship management

175

A request from a user or a user’s authorized representative that initiates a service action which has been agreed as a normal part of service delivery.

Service request

176

The practice of supporting the agreed quality of a service by handling all pre-defined, user-initiated service requests in an effective and user-friendly manner.

Service request management practice

177

The practice of ensuring that new or changed products and services meet defined requirements.

Service validation and testing practice

178

A model representing how all the components and activities of an organization work together to facilitate value creation.

Service value system (SVS)

179

The practice of ensuring that applications meet stakeholder needs in terms of functionality, reliability, maintainability, compliance, and auditability.

Software development and management practice

180

The activity of planning and obtaining resources from a particular source type, which could be internal or external, centralized or distributed, and open or proprietary.

Sourcing

181

A documented description of the properties of a product, service, or other configuration item

Specification

182

A person who authorizes budget for service consumption. Can also be used to describe an organization or individual that provides financial or other support for an initiative.

Sponsor

183

A person or organization that has an interest or involvement in an organization, product, service, practice, or other entity.

Stakeholder

184

A document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides for common and repeated use, mandatory requirements, guidelines, or characteristics for its subject.

Standard

185

A low-risk, preauthorized change that is well understood and fully documented, and which can be implemented without needing additional authorization.

Standard change

186

A description of the specific states an entity can have at a given time

Status

187

The practice of formulating the goals of an organization and adopting the courses of action and allocation of resources necessary for achieving those goals.

Strategy management practice

188

A stakeholder responsible for providing services that are used by an organization.

Supplier

189

The practice of ensuring that an organization’s suppliers and their performance levels are managed appropriately to support the provision of seamless quality products and services.

Supplier management practice

190

A team with the responsibility to maintain normal operations, address users’ requests, and resolve incidents and problems related to specified products, services, or other configuration items.

Support team

191

A combination of interacting elements organized and maintained to achieve one or more stated purposes.

System

192

A holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system’s constituent parts work, interrelate, and interact over time, and within the context of other systems.

Systems thinking

193

The total rework backlog accumulated by choosing workarounds instead of system solutions that would take longer.

Technical debt

194

A controlled environment established to test products, services, and other configuration items

Test environment

195

A stakeholder external to an organization.

Third party

196

A measure of the amount of work performed by a product, service, or other system over a given period of time.

Throughput

197

A unit of work consisting of an exchange between two or more participants or systems.

Transaction

198

A technique using realistic practical scenarios to define functional requirements and to design tests.

Use case

199

A person who uses services.

User

200

The functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need. It can be summarized as 'what the service does’ and can be used to determine whether a service is ‘fit for purpose’. To have it, a service must either support the performance of the consumer or remove constraints from the consumer. Many services do both.

Utility

201

Functional requirements which have been defined by the customer and are unique to a specific product.

Utility requirements

202

Confirmation that the system, product, service, or other entity meets the agreed specification.

Validation

203

The perceived benefits, usefulness, and importance of something.

Value

204

A series of steps an organization undertakes to create and deliver products and services to consumers.

Value stream

205

A defined aspiration of what an organization would like to become in the future

Vision

206

Assurance that a product or service will meet agreed requirements. It can be summarized as ‘how the service performs’ and can be used to determine whether a service is ‘fit for use’. It often relates to service levels aligned with the needs of service consumers. This may be based on a formal agreement, or it may be a marketing message or brand image. It typically addresses such areas as the availability of the service, its capacity, levels of security, and continuity. A service may be said to have it, if all defined and agreed conditions are met.

Warranty

207

Typically, non-functional requirements captured as inputs from key stakeholders and other practices.

Warranty requirements

208

A development approach that is linear and sequential with distinct objectives for each phase of development.

Waterfall method

209

A detailed description to be followed in order to perform an activity

Work instruction

210

A solution that reduces or eliminates the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available. It may reduce the likelihood of incidents.

Workaround

211

The practice of ensuring that an organization has the right people with the appropriate skills and knowledge and in the correct roles to support its business objectives.

Workforce and talent management practice

212

The four dimensions of Service Management

213

Components of the Service Value System (SVS)

214

Components of the Service Value Chain

215

What are some of the main ITIL management practices?

  • Continual improvement
  • Change enablement
  • Incident management
  • Problem management
  • Service request management
  • Service desk
  • Service level management
  • Information security management
  • Relationship management
  • Supplier management
  • IT Asset management
  • Monitoring and Event Management
  • Release management
  • Service Configuration Management
  • Deployment management

 

216

Which ITIL practice involves the below?

Supplier planning
Evaluation of suppliers and contracts
Supplier and contract negotiation
Supplier categorization
Supplier and contract management
Warranty management
Performance management
Contract renewal or termination

Supplier Management Practice

217

These are changes that need to be scheduled, assessed, and authorized
in order to follow a standard process

Normal changes

218

The infrastructure and process necessary for the effective
management, control, and protection of the software assets within an
organization, throughout all stages of their lifecycle.

Software asset management (SAM)

219

Two types of IT asset management

IT asset management (ITAM)

This is a sub-practice of asset management that is specifically aimed at managing the lifecycles and total costs of IT equipment and infrastructure.

Software asset management (SAM)

This is the infrastructure and process necessary for the effective management, control, and protection of the software assets within an organization, throughout all stages of their lifecycle

220

Distinct approaches that can be used for deployment