Flashcards in Jacksonian Democracy and the Mexican War (1824-1850) Deck (80):
Commodore ____________ defeated the British at Lake Erie, allowing General William Harrison to go north into Canada and win the Battle of the Thames in the War of 1812.
Perry built a fleet on Lake Erie.
Fort McHenry resisted British bombardment in the War of 1812, inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the "_____________ Banner."
After the British set fire to Washington DC, they attacked Fort McHenry at Baltimore, MD.
In the war of 1812, the British landed on the coast of ________, setting fire to the public buildings of Washington DC.
They set fire to the public buildings in Washington DC, including the Executive Mansion. The Executive Mansion was then repainted white and became the White House.
Andrew _______ fought the British and won at the Battle of New Orleans two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed for the War of 1812.
Andrew Jackson fought a much larger force of British at the Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson was a famous general in the war of 1812 who later became President. He was not the same general as "Stonewall" Jackson who fought on the Confederate side in the Civil War.
The Treaty of _____ in 1814 ended the War of 1812.
The Treaty of Ghent, signed in Ghent, Belgium, ended the War of 1812. All land won in this war was restored to the pre-war owners.
The first protective tariff in US History was passed in the year ____.
It was passed in 1816 due to the flood of cheap British products entering the country.
The Rush-Bagot Treaty was an agreement between England and the US not to have armed fleets on the Great _____, and is still in effect.
The Rush-Bagot Treaty led to the removal of British and American fleets from the Great Lakes after the War of 1812.
In ____, Andrew Jackson led an army into Spanish-controlled Florida and occupied Pensacola, violating international law.
Andrew Jackson led an army into Florida, and hung two British men he suspected of selling arms to the Indians.
In the ____-Onis Treaty signed in 1819, the US got control of Spanish Florida in return for $5 million.
The Adam-Onis Treaty stated that the Spanish surrendered their claims to Florida in return for $5 million from the US government.
The ______ Doctrine stated that North and South America were no longer open to colonization by European countries.
President Monroe made an announcement known as the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, which in a sense was the United State's declaration of economic independence.
_______ vs Madison established the Supreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of laws.
Marbury vs Madison, in 1803, was ruled by the first Supreme Court Justice John Marshall.
________ vs Peck (1810) was the first time a state law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward limited the power of state governments to control ____________.
In the case Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) the New Hampshire State Legislature had passed laws amending the college charter which specified the college would have 12 trustees. The legislature changed the number to 21 and also appointed 25 overseers and gave the State general supervision of college affairs. The Supreme Court declared the State laws unconstitutional ruling that the laws violated the constitutional clause which prohibits States from passing any law which interferes with the obligation of contracts.
Several rulings made by Chief Justice _____________ weakened state powers through cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden.
Chief Justice John Marshall first established the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws enacted by Congress, and then showed the power of federal courts to rule on the actions of individual states as well. For example, in Gibbons v. Ogden, he prevented New York from regulating interstate commerce.
McCulloch v. Maryland established that the state does not have the power to regulate a _______ agency.
McCulloch vs Maryland was a ruling by John Marshall in 1819.
Gibbons vs Ogden was a ruling by John Marshall that only Congress has the right to regulate __________ commerce.
Gibbons vs Ogden in 1824 was in response to a monopoly which New York had granted to Ogden to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey.
The Missouri Compromise, worked out by Speaker of the House __________, brought Missouri and Maine into the Union as states.
The Missouri Compromise brought Missouri in as a slave state, and Maine as a free state. Also, it divided the Louisiana Purchase with a line--slavery would be prohibited in states which came in from above that line.
The first state to be formed from the Louisiana Territory was ________.
The Missouri Territory applied for statehood in 1819, and resulted in the Missouri Compromise.
Robert Fulton made the first _________ in 1807.
Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, was built in 1807.
The ________ Road, which connected Cumberland, Maryland, and Wheeling, Virginia, linking the Potomac and Ohio Rivers, was built in 1818.
The National Road was financed by the federal government.
The Erie Canal connected the ______ River with Lake Erie, and was the first canal built in the United States.
The Erie Canal was built in 1825.
By 1830, New York City was the US's _______ city.
New York City was a large center for trade and business and dominated the domestic cotton market.
Samuel Slater built the first _______ mill in the US based on plans he memorized from English designs.
Samuel Slater built the first textile mill--this was a big step in the rise of factories in the US.
In 1793 an American, Eli Whitney, invented the ______ gin.
This was an engine that separated the fibers of raw cotton from the seeds and enabled a single slave to do what had previously required the hand labor of fifty slaves.
Eli Whitney developed not only the cotton gin, but the principle of interchangeable parts, which is used in _______________.
Eli Whitney's invention of interchangeable parts was first applied towards mass-producing rifles.
In 1828, the first organized strike occurred in __________.
Child workers started the first organized strike in the US in 1828.
The Missouri Compromise brought Missouri into the Union as a _____ state.
Missouri came in as a slave state, and Maine entered as a free state. Also, under the Missouri Compromise, slavery was prohibited in states north of the 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude line, with the exception of Missouri. This Compromise was later repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The best known American writer in the United States in the early 1800's was _________________.
Washington Irving, who wrote stories such as Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle, was the best known American author. At that time, people mostly read books imported from Europe.
In 1805, History of the Revolution was published by _________________.
Mercy Otis Warren.
Mercy Otis Warren published a multi-volume book, the History of the Revolution.
The Second Great _________ began in 1801 in Kentucky in a religious "camp meeting."
The Second Great Awakening began in 1801, and led to a religious revival in the United States. The First Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals which occurred between 1720-1740. A leading preacher of the First Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards, who preached the famous sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" in 1741. A Calvinist preacher, he spoke on how dangerously close to hell all the people were, in this well-known example of fire and brimstone preaching. This excerpt from the sermon gives a good idea of what the sermon was like: "God has laid himself under no obligation, by any promise to keep any natural man out of hell one moment."
John Calhoun, John Quincy Adams' vice president (and later vice president under Andrew Jackson), anonymously published ______________ Exposition and Protest.
John Calhoun, in opposition to what was known as the "Tariff of Abominations, "anonymously published South Carolina Exposition and Protest," stating his theory that states could ignore laws they considered unconstitutional.
He was the last vice president to have served under two different presidents.
The Democratic Party first appeared in 1828, when John Quincy Adams was running against ______________ for president.
John Quincy Adams was running as a National Republican, and Andrew Jackson was running as a Democratic Republican, which later became the Democratic Party.
President Andrew Jackson relied on his "_______ Cabinet" instead of his appointed cabinet officials.
President Andrew Jackson relied on his Kitchen Cabinet, which were a group of supporters he trusted and listened to.
The ______ system was President Andrew Jackson's belief that government offices should go to political supporters.
Andrew Jackson believed that "common" people could fill government positions, and as a result, he had the idea that he could replace most government employees with his supporters. This was known as the spoils system.
Andrew Jackson was the _____ president to use his veto power extensively.
Andrew Jackson used his veto power more than any previous president. An example is the Maysville Road, which Jackson vetoed on the grounds that it required federal funds, but would only exist in one state.
The Indian _______ Act was passed in 1830 under President Andrew Jackson and called for federal enforcement of the removal of all Indian tribes to the west of the Mississippi.
The Trail of _____ was where the US Government forced thousands of Cherokees to march west, many of them dying in the process.
This forced march is known as the Trail of Tears. Under President Jackson, the Cherokees were forced to move, despite the decision upheld by the Supreme Court stating that the Cherokees were a sovereign political entity within Georgia.
In 1830, there was a debate between Senator Hayne, and ______________. The Senator spoke of South Carolina's right to nullification.
Senator Hayne spoke of the possibility of nullification, which is the idea that a state can nullify, or ignore federal laws which it considers unconstitutional.
One of the views on how power should be divided between the states and the national government is called Dual __________, and only grants the national government the powers specifically stated in the Constitution.
Dual federalism says that the national government has whatever powers are specifically granted in the Constitution, and all other powers belong to the states. It also tends to involve the ideas of nullification--states can nullify laws passed by Congress, and secession--states can withdraw from the Union if their right to nullification is blocked.
Andrew Jackson's vice president, John Calhoun, resigned after Jackson supported the ______ of 1832.
John Calhoun, who had also been John Quincy Adams' Vice President, resigned his office when Jackson supported the new tariff. He then came up with the Ordinance of Nullification, in which South Carolina ignored the tariff.
President Andrew Jackson caused the downfall of the Bank of the _____________.
President Andrew Jackson achieved this by withdrawing government deposits from the Bank, and then letting its charter expire in 1836.
President Jackson's successor, Martin Van Buren, recommended the establishment of the ________ to handle government funds.
President Van Buren spent his entire term attempting to deal with the financial turmoil which resulted from the destruction of the Bank of the United States. He convinced Congress to establish an independent Treasury to handle government money.
With the development of the steamboats, traffic on western rivers, especially the Mississippi River, _________ dramatically.
Steamboats were of particular value on the western rivers, where previously, traffic went downstream with the current. This new, efficient transportation resulted in new communities and economies developing along the Mississippi River.
______ became popular because the transportation they provided was so cheap.
Canals were popular because a huge barge could be towed along the canal by a single horse or mule. They were not as fast as the railroads, but they were significantly cheaper. The most famous canal, the Erie Canal, reached its peak traffic in 1880, long after railroads spanned the Northeastern United States.
President ________________ served the shortest term of any president in US history.
President William Harrison caught pneumonia and died one month after becoming president.
Out of the political parties, the _________ were against a large federal government, and appealed to the small farmers and working class.
The Democrats' primary supporters were small farmers and working class people.
The Whigs, which was the political party of President ________, received most of their support from big business, and wealthy plantation owners.
The Whigs were a political party who appealed to the business and industry in the Northeast, and large Southern planters. Their policies were heavy government involvement in promoting commercial and industrial growth, and a cautious approach to Western expansion.
Reform movements were big in the __________ century. These movements were mostly centered in the Northeastern portion of the country, especially New England.
New England could be considered the center of many of the reform movements occurring in the nineteenth century.
The Enlightenment movement emphasized rationalism and was a big movement in the 18th century. ___________, which emphasized emotions over rationalism, was also a major movement.
Romanticism went against many of the beliefs of Enlightenment.
The Free Soil Party, Liberty Party, and the __________ Party all opposed slavery.
All three parties opposed slavery, or more specifically, the expansion of slavery into new territories.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and David Thoreau were among the most famous advocates of the _________________ movement in the 1830's and 1840's.
The Transcendentalist movement was a religious movement which believed in attaining unity with God without the church. In addition to being a transcendentalist, Thoreau was a naturalist and an author. He loved nature, and wrote, "Each town should have a park, or rather a primitive forest, of 500 or a thousand acres, where a stick should never be cut for fuel, a common possession forever, for instruction and recreation." Thoreau made himself a house in Walden Woods, where he lived for two years, two months, and two days as an experiment. Near that house today, there is a plaque which reads:
I went to the woods because
I wished to live deliberately
to front only the essential
facts of life
and see if I could
not learn what it had to teach
and not, when I came to die,
discover that I had not lived.
The _______ movement was in response to the rise of impersonal industrialism. It involved trying to create the perfect community in social, political, and moral aspects.
This was known as the Utopian movement. A utopia is an ideally perfect place in politics, laws, and the moral aspects.
American writers from the 1800's who emphasized individuality and an intuitive spirituality, for example Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, were known as __________________.
Transcendentalist writers emphasized nature, self-reliance and the individual.
The _______ were the most successful of the efforts in the 19th century to establish a separate community which was perfect.
The Mormons established Salt Lake City after being driven out of Illinois. Their practice of polygamy was one of the biggest reasons they were unpopular with their neighbors.
____________ organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, also known as the Mormons.
Joseph Smith organized the Mormon Church. He was later killed by a mob in Illinois, and a man named Brigham Young led the group to settle in Utah.
____________ started a crusade to improve conditions for the mentally ill.
The true beginning of the modern feminist movement was with the meeting in 1848 in ____________, New York, where the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was made.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the major activists in the women's right movement, along with others, resulted in the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions. This document demanded equal rights for women. Many supporters of women's rights believed that the Declaration's push for women's suffrage would cause the movement to lose a lot of public support.
______________________ published a newspaper called The Liberator. This paper was devoted to the abolition of slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison.
Garrison also greatly influenced an ex-slave, Frederick Douglass. As a young boy, Frederick received some reading lessons from his mistress and local boys, because he believed that it was the key to his freedom. As a man, Douglass regularly attended Abolitionist meetings, and in 1841, Frederick Douglass heard Garrison speak at one. He was so impressed, that Douglass later stated, "no face and form ever impressed me with such sentiments as did those of William Lloyd Garrison." Douglass would go on to become a great abolitionist orator, and a great influence on President Lincoln's decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
The American ____________ Society was an early attempt to solve the slavery problem by sending the Black people back to Africa.
The American Colonization Society received federal funding, established the republic of Liberia in Africa, and tried to purchase slaves and offer them passage to Liberia.
One of the most influential books for the anti-slavery movement was Harriet Beecher Stowe's __________________.
Uncle Tom\'s Cabin.
The fastest growing area of the United States in the ____'s was the West.
The West was growing rapidly, reaching a population of 32 million in 1860.
Over 200,000 free blacks lived in the US by ____.
They usually established their own churches and organizations due to the restrictions of prejudice and "Jim Crow" laws.
The Northeastern portion of the US produced most of the ____________ goods, and led the way in industrial growth.
The Northeastern portion of the US was where most of the factories were located, and produced over two-thirds of the manufactured goods.
In _____ v. Pennsylvania (1842) the Supreme Court ruled that the Fugitive Slave Act (1793) must be enforced by Federal authorities alone. State authorities could not be forced to act.
According to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 hindering arrest or harboring a runaway slave was punishable by a fine of five hundred dollars. Local magistrates were instructed to return runaway slaves to their owner once proof of ownership had been established. Suspected runaway slaves were not authorized trial by jury or given the right to testify.
Manifest _______ was the belief that eventually the United States would stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
Manifest Destiny was the idea that America should spread from the East Coast all the way to the West Coast, and motivated Western _________.
Manifest Destiny was a spirit of superiority and American pride; it involved a belief that Americans were superior to the Native Americans occupying the land, and the need to spread American democracy and culture.
In 1836, what was known as the gag rule was passed in the House of Representatives, forbidding discussion of _______ in the House.
Due to the rising tension between the North and the South over the issue of slavery, Southern representatives came up with the "gag" rule.
Texas was originally a part of Mexico, but established itself as an independent republic after Sam Houston defeated Mexican dictator __________.
Texas was a part of Mexico, but eventually there were more Americans living there than Mexicans. The Texans fought for their independence and established their own republic.
The one member of the cabinet who did not resign immediately after President _____ vetoed a number of Whig-sponsored bills was Daniel Webster.
Daniel Webster was Secretary of State, and stayed around long enough to finish his Webster-Ashburton Treaty with England. He also resigned after negotiating the treaty.
The first serious impeachment attempt on a President was made while President _____ was in office.
John Tyler, who became President after William Harrison died, was in opposition to all of the Whig Party's major ideas, vetoing many Whig-sponsored bills. He was expelled from the Whig Party and the Whigs tried to impeach him.
President John Tyler managed to get _____ admitted into the Union just before he left office.
Texas had gained independence from Mexico in 1836, but the United States refused to make it a state because of the issue of slavery. President Tyler finally got Texas admitted in 1845.
Before 1846, Oregon was shared by _______ and the United States. Americans wanted all of this state, and President Polk's stance on this issue helped win him the presidency.
President Polk endorsed the Oregon Treaty which extended the US boundary to the Pacific Ocean and established a portion of Oregon as belonging to the United States.
Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the Mormons left Illinois and settled in Utah, which was then a part of ______.
Brigham Young led the Mormons from Illinois after Joseph Smith was killed. He then established the Mormon Republic of Deseret.
One of the major causes of the Mexican War was the dispute over the southern boundary of _____.
The US claimed the Rio Grande River as the southern boundary of Texas, while Mexico claimed it was 130 miles north of the Rio Grande. The fact that the US had admitted Texas into the Union also angered Mexico.
As a result of the _______ War, the dream of Manifest Destiny was fulfilled--the United States gained ports on the Pacific Coast.
As a result of the Mexican War, the U.S. controlled all three of the major west-coast natural harbors. Texas had already been annexed by the United States before the Mexican War ever occurred, but the U.S. gained all of the land stretching from New Mexico to California through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Under President Polk, the United States declared war on ______.
President Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico after a conflict between Mexican and American troops in Texas.
General Zachary Taylor led the _______ force of American soldiers into Mexico during the Mexican War.
General Zachary Taylor led an army into Mexico, winning several major battles against much larger Mexican forces.
The treaty of _________-Hidalgo ended the Mexican War.
The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. This resulted in Mexico giving the "Mexican Cession" to the US, which included what is now the Southwestern US.
General Winfield Scott landed on Mexico's east coast, and captured ______ City.
General Winfield Scott was ordered by President Polk to take Mexico City in an attempt to force Mexico to negotiate a treaty.