Flashcards in The Newly Formed United States ( 1787-1824) Deck (80):
The Declaration of ____________ was adopted by Congress on July 4, 1776. It was written by Thomas Jefferson, and summarized principles of human freedom and popular government.
The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and stated the common political ideas of the American people.
In March 1776, Washington finally forced the British to leave Boston by placing cannons taken from Fort ___________ on a hill outside the city.
Using oxen and sleds, the colonial army had dragged cannons from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston over the winter. Washington used these cannons to force the British to leave Boston.
After forcing the British to leave Boston, Washington experienced a string of _______. His army was demoralized and falling apart, but a major victory at Trenton, NJ on Christmas night, 1776, saved his army.
Washington launched a surprise attack on the Hessians (Germans fighting for the British) at Trenton, New Jersey while they were still drunk on Christmas night.
The ______ joined the colonists in the war against England, sending arms and money, and later troops, to America.
France openly joined the colonists after the Battle of Saratoga, having decided that the colonists might be able to win the war after all. They did this to get back at their old enemy, England not because they valued freedom. The Spanish and the Dutch also joined the war a few months after the French.
The British strategy was to end the war by 1777 by dividing the colonies into two. This effort was led by General ________, until he was defeated at Saratoga and surrendered his entire army.
General Burgoyne led an army down from Canada, retaking Fort Ticonderoga, and heading towards New York City. At Saratoga, he was defeated by Benedict Arnold and General Gates. This was a major victory, because it convinced the French to openly support the American effort.
While British General Burgoyne was defeated at Saratoga, General Howe captured the American capital, ____________, forcing Congress to move to another city, and resulting in Washington spending the winter at Valley Forge.
General Howe captured Philadelphia and spent the winter there, forcing Congress to flee to Lancaster and then later set up in York, Pennsylvania.
After General Howe captured Philadelphia, he was relieved by General _______, whose new strategy involved capturing the South.
General Clinton decided to focus on capturing the South, which rumors said contained many people loyal to Britain, known as Loyalists.
In the South, Clinton and __________ took Georgia and South Carolina with ease, until forces led by Nathaniel Greene recaptured South Carolina.
Washington appointed Nathaniel Greene to command the colonial forces in the South. Greene was victorious in crushing British opposition in South Carolina. Cornwallis then abandoned the South and led his forces into Virginia.
After Nathaniel Greene retook South Carolina from the British, Cornwallis moved up into Virginia, where he took up a defensive position at ________, Virginia.
Cornwallis, following Clinton's orders, stayed in Yorktown. He ended up surrendering when Washington, with the aid of French fleet and army, surrounded his forces in Yorktown.
The Revolutionary War ended after defeating Cornwallis at ________ with the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 stated that the major European countries recognized the United States as a nation.
The initial government of the United States was outlined in the Articles of _____________, establishing a weak national government which could not levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce.
The Articles of Confederation involved a unicameral Congress, and required unanimous approval of all the states to undergo amendment.
The Articles of _____________, established the first government of the United States after the Revolutionary War, and gave the federal government very limited powers-- the ability to make war and treaties with other countries.
The Articles of Confederation provided for a government with no executive or judiciary branch, only a legislature. It did not give the federal government the power to impose taxes, or regulate trade; its power was limited to making war, alliances, and treaties with other countries. It was replaced by the Constitution in 1789.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government was unable to collect taxes, and the country fell into financial trouble. The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plan by some to use the ____ to force the states to give up more power.
The Newburgh Conspiracy was a movement by some who wanted a strong national government to use the army to force the states to relinquish some power. It was stopped by Washington, who appealed to his men.
An attempt to ammend the Articles of Confederations so that the government could levy taxes was blocked by ____________.
Rhode Island alone turned down the amendment. Under the Articles of Confederation unanimous approval was required to make an amendment.
The ______________ of 1785 was how Congress controlled the splitting up of land in the Northwest. It provided for the distribution of land in units called townships.
The Land Ordinance of 1785 was also how Congress hoped to make some money; they ended up selling huge areas of land for mere pennies per acre to land companies.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided government for the Northwest, stated the requirements for becoming a recognized _____, and included a bill of rights. Also, it prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 followed the Land Ordinance of 1785 in defining how the Northwest would be settled and governed.
The Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations in 1785 was an effort by John Jay to create a treaty with Spanish minister Gardoqui that would help the US break out of its economic depression by offering profitable commercial __________.
The Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations were turned down by Congress since it showed little concern for the West and South by closing the Mississippi River to the transportation of goods.
In 1787, the same year the Constitutional Convention met in ____________, the Northwest Ordinance was passed to provide government for the territory northwest of the Ohio River.
The Northwest Ordinance was passed in 1787 by the Continental Congress, while the Constitutional Convention was in session in Philadelphia.
Thomas Jefferson's definition of human rights in the Declaration of Independence was borrowed from __________.
Jefferson took this definition from John Locke--a European philosopher of freedom and natural rights.
_____________ has been called the "Father of the Constitution."
James Madison came up with the "Virginia Plan," which called for an executive branch and two houses of Congress based on population. Madison asked Edmund Randolph, governor of Virginia to present his plan.
The __________ plan called for a congress with one house, with equal representation from all states.
The New Jersey Plan had the small states in mind, demanding equal representation from each state.
The _____ compromise was finally agreed upon when forming the Constitution, and provided for two houses of Congress, one with two Senators for each state, and the House of Representatives based on state population.
This was known as the Great Compromise, and combined Madison's Virginia Plan with the New Jersey Plan.
The Three-fifths compromise resulted in ______ being counted as three-fifths of a person for calculating Congressional representation and taxing for each state.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was made during the writing of the Constitution.
The power of Congress to _______ the President is an example of checks and balances.
This power is an example of checks and balances. Other examples are the President's veto power, and the Supreme Court's power of judicial review.
The new Constitution required 9 states to ratify it to replace the Articles of _____________.
The new Constitution required nine states to ratify it, but two states which refused to ratify resulted in delays in the Constitution taking effect. These two states were ________ and Virginia.
New York and Virginia, two of the largest states in the Union, refused to ratify the Constitution. Finally, they were persuaded largely by the promise to ratify a Bill of Rights which would guarantee the rights of citizens.
Even after Virginia and New York decided to ratify the Constitution, two states refused to ratify. These states were North Carolina and ____________.
North Carolina and Rhode Island refused to ratify, Rhode Island going as far as to ignore the entire ratification attempt. They eventually gave into pressure after Congress threatened to treat them as foreigners.
In 1787, representatives met in Philadelphia to discuss the plans for a Constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. This meeting was known as the Constitutional __________.
Those who _________ the ratification of the Constitution called themselves Federalists.
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote a series of newspaper articles known as the __________ Papers in an effort to convince people to support the Constitution.
They wrote the Federalist Papers, which explained the Constitution and how it prevented abuses of power.
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had two very opposing ideologies. Hamilton believed in government by the _______ and powerful.
Alexander Hamilton believed in tying the wealthy and powerful to the government; he supported the growth of manufacturing, tariffs, and establishing a national bank. On the other hand, Thomas Jefferson was basically southern and rural, and was on the side of the small farmer.
In March ____, George Washington became our first president.
George Washington became president by a unanimous vote by the presidential electors. John Adams received the next highest number of votes and became the vice president. The 12th amendment changed the process so that we vote for the president and vice president separately.
Which body of Congress has the power to impeach the president? The ________________________.
House of Representatives.
All bills passed in relation to revenue must originate in the ________________________.
House of Representatives.
While it must be passed by both houses and signed by the president, all revenue-raising bills must originate in the House. Note that the tax related bills originate specifically in the Ways and Means committee of the House of Representatives.
An elected term for a ______________ in the House of Representatives is 2 years.
Which side of Congress serves as the court and jury in the impeachment process? ______
The Senate acts as the court and jury, the House has the power to bring impeachment charges.
An elected term for a Senator is _ years.
The elected term is 6 years, and there is no limit to the number of times a senator can be re-elected. In the House of Representatives, a term is 2 years, and they also do not have a limit on the number of terms served.
The Vice President of the US is the presiding officer for the ______.
The vice president is the presiding officer for the senate, although it is normally the president pro tempore who presides. The vice president may vote to break a tie in the senate.
Originally, there was no limit on the number of terms the _________ could serve, but the limit was set to two terms by the 22nd Amendment.
President. The 22nd Amendment limits the president to two terms in office.
The construction of America's _____ system was accomplished through the Judiciary Act of 1789.
Amendments to the Constitution require the approval of ___ of the state legislatures to be ratified.
Three-fourths of the state-legislatures must ratify an Amendment for it to take effect.
The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the ______________.
Bill of Rights.
The first ten amendments are called the Bill of Rights. There are currently 27 amendments.
The ____ Amendment abolished slavery.
The 10th Amendment reserved all power not granted to the federal government for the _____ government.
The 10th Amendment stated that all power not specifically granted to the government belonged to the states. The first nine amendment had to do with personal freedoms.
The 14th Amendment prohibits the states from interfering with _______'s rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights.
The 14th Amendment defines citizenship in a way that includes Blacks. It then goes on to say that no state can make a law that interferes with any citizen's equal protection under the law. The 14th Amendment was designed to keep the states from trying to take away rights guaranteed to all citizens, especially blacks.
The _______ Rebellion was significant because George Washington's response showed the power of the new government formed under the Constitution.
The Whiskey Rebellion was an incident where farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay a tax on liquor. When U.S. marshals tried to enforce the law, they were chased away by armed farmers. George Washington ended up leading an army to end the rebellion, showing that the new government had the power to enforce its laws.
The first three departments of the executive branch which Congress established were the state, treasury, and ___ departments.
The Department of War was one of the first three departments of the executive branch.
In his Report on the Public Credit, Alexander Hamilton proposed the establishment of a national ____.
Alexander Hamilton wrote "Report on the Public Credit" in which he proposed a national bank. The Republicans opposed this idea, believing the constitution did not grant the power to establish one.
In Alexander Hamilton's Report on Manufactures, he came up with a program for federal ___________ of industrial development.
In his Report on Manufactures, Hamilton proposed subsidies and tax incentives to help industrial growth.
________________ opposed Alexander Hamilton's plan for a national bank because he believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Thomas Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution, as opposed to the "implied powers" stance which Alexander Hamilton favored. He also felt that a national bank would treat the poor farmers unfairly and it would favor the northeastern manufacturing industry.
In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court established the concept of _______ powers by ruling that the federal government had the right to establish a national bank through Congress's power to borrow money and regulate commerce.
McCulloch v. Maryland was a landmark case because it upheld the idea of implied powers, or the idea that Congress has powers other than those which are specifically stated in its enumerated powers.
The first two political parties were Federalists and ___________.
The Federalists favored a strong central government with extensive powers, while the Republicans believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Of the original two political parties, most big businesses supported the __________ party.
Big business supported the Federalist party, with its programs for encouraging industrial growth and other business-oriented ideas. This meant the Federalists had their strongest support from the Northeast and the South.
In 1792, France, which had just declared itself a republic, went to war with a coalition of European monarchies led by England. Washington responded with a Proclamation of __________.
Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality was his attempt at keeping the US out of the European War. Unfortunately, the British and French started seizing American ships which entered the European waters for trade.
In 1794, John Jay was sent to negotiate with the British, who were seizing American crews and forcing them to work for the British ____.
John Jay was sent to negotiate, but the Treaty he came back with did not solve many of the problems he had been sent to resolve.
___'s Treaty of 1794 re-established trade with Britain on a most favored nation status.
The treaty made no mention of British violations of American maritime rights (for example Britain's impressment of American sailors). The treaty was negotiated by John Jay, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
After John Jay's Treaty with Britain in 1794, the US ratified the ________ Treaty with Spain, granting Americans the right to use the Mississippi River.
The Pinckney Treaty, negotiated by Thomas Pinckney, did three things--it allowed Americans to transport goods along the Mississippi and deposit cargo in New Orleans, and it established the 31st parallel as being Florida's northern boundary.
The Battle of ______________ resulted in the Treaty of Greenville and cleared the Indians from the Ohio Territory.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers, won by General Wayne, was the victory which led to the Treaty of Greenville.
The _______ Rebellion in 1794 occurred when farmers refused to pay a tax on whiskey, and chased off tax collectors. Washington responded with an army of 15,000 men.
The Whiskey Rebellion showed that some people did not take the new government seriously. That's why Washington responded with such a large force, to give the federal government credibility.
The saying "millions for defense, but not one cent for _______" became popular in response to the XYZ affair.
This saying was trumpeted by the press after the XYZ affair--Delegates went to France in 1798 to convince them to stop harassing American ships, but the french foreign minister refused to meet the Americans. Instead, they had to speak with three unnamed officials who wanted a bribe. These three unnamed officials became X, Y, and Z.
After the XYZ Affair, America and France were close to war. President John Adams sent one more delegation in 1799; ________ was now in power, and signed a treaty.
Napoleon was now in power, and being bent on European conquest, he did not want to make an enemy of the US. He agreed on a treaty which restored commercial relations and stopped French harassment of American ships.
The _____ Act allowed the president to deport foreign immigrants he considered suspect, and made it more difficult to become an American citizen.
Jefferson referred to his election as president as the "__________ of 1800."
After seeing some of the laws passed by the Federalists under John Adams, he came to see his victory as a victory for the future of the American republic.
Washington DC was designed by Pierre _________.
L\'Enfant. John Adams was the first to occupy this new city near the end of his term.
By refusing to rule on _______ vs Madison, Supreme Court Justice John Marshall established the court's power of judicial review.
Marbury vs Madison was an important case, because the Supreme Court established its power of judicial review over the other two branches.
The ________ Act made it a crime to criticize the President or Congress.
The Sedition Act was passed by the Federalists, aimed at keeping the Republicans quiet.
________ sold the land between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains to the US for $15 million, in what is known as the Louisiana purchase.
The Louisiana Purchase effectively doubled the size of the United States.
The ________________ opposed ratification of the Constitution and had the support of many small farmers and small landowners.
The Anti-Federalists opposed ratification of the Constitution. Many small farmers and small landowners were Anti-Federalists, and would later support the Republican Party established by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Jefferson sent the _______________ group, consisting of 48 men, to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Lewis and Clark.
The Lewis and Clark group was sent out to explore the land west of the Mississippi before the US even made the Louisiana purchase.
In addition to the Lewis and Clark expedition, Zebulon Pike was sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase. Pike's ____ was named after this group.
Zebulon Pike, a lieutenant, led a group to find the source of the Mississippi River. He was also sent to explore the Southwest portion of the newly purchased Louisiana Territory.
In 1804, Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with __________.
Dueling was illegal in the north, so at that point, Burr was wanted for murder.
Aaron Burr became involved in a plot to start a new nation in the ____; he was betrayed, arrested, and tried for treason.
After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr came up with a scheme to establish a new nation in the West. He was arrested and tried for treason, but was acquitted by John Marshall, who redefined the legal definition of treason.
The _______ War was an undeclared war that lasted from 1801 to 1805, in which American ships were sent to stop the North Africans from harassing American merchant ships.
The Barbary War resulted in nothing clearly being settled.
The two major countries immigrants to the US came from in the early 1800s were _______ and Germany.
In the early 1800s, Ireland and Germany were the biggest sources of immigrants.
British ships were boarding American ships and forcing sailors into the British Navy. When the HMS Leopard stopped the USS __________, off the coast of Virginia, Americans wanted war.
The HMS Leopard fired on the USS Chesapeake, and then boarded it and took four sailors and hung them, calling them British deserters. This was done right off the coast of Virginia.
_________'s response to the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair was the Embargo of 1807, a total cut off of American trade.
The Embargo of 1807 was Jefferson's response to the Chesapeake--Leopard Affair, in which the HMS Leopard boarded the USS Chesapeake. This embargo was repealed two years later, after it had caused an economic depression.
The Embargo of 1807 was repealed by the _______________ Act of 1809, which opened trade with all countries except England and France.
Since the majority of US trade at that time was with England and France, the Act was largely ineffective. The Non-Intercourse Act stated that if England or France stopped harassing American ships, the US would re-open trade with that country.
The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was replaced in 1810 by the _____ Bill no. 2.
The Macon Bill No 2 stated that if either France or Britain were to withdraw that nation's proclamations against American shipping, the US government would give the other country three months to do the same.
An Indian Chief named Tecumseh succeeded in uniting the northwestern tribes until 1811 when General William Harrison defeated his brother, the Prophet, at __________.
Tecumseh was a Shawnee Indian Chief.