JUNE 2011 Flashcards Preview

UNIT 5 - BIOLOGY > JUNE 2011 > Flashcards

Flashcards in JUNE 2011 Deck (21):

Give one way in which the structure of an mRNA molecule is different from the structue of a tRNA molecule (1 mark)

1. tRNA molecules contain hydrogen bonds


Explain the difference between pre-mRNA and mRNA (1 mark)

1. pre-mRNA contains introns whereas mRNA does not


Explain why the percentages of bases from the middle part of the chromosome and the end part are different (2 marks)

1. Different genes present
2. Different base sequences i
3. pre-mRNA transcribed from different DNA base sequence


Describe how hormones are different in the cells that they affect (1 mark)

1. Affect cells with only the right receptor


Describe how hormones and local chemical mediators reach the cells they affect (2 marks)

1. Hormones in the blood
2. Local chemical mediators are spread by diffusion


Synapses are unidirectional. Explain how acetylcholine contributes to the synapse being unidirectional. (2 marks)

1. Ach released from the presynaptic side
2. Diffusion from higher to lower concentration
3. Receptors in the postsynaptic side


When a young shoot is illuminated from one side, IAA stimulates growth on the shades side. Explain why growth on the shaded side helps to maintain the leaves in a favourable environment (2 marks)

1. Leaves bend towards the light
2. Light used in photosynthesis


Scientists can separate DNA fragments using electrophoresis. Suggest how they can use electrophoresis to estimate the number of base pairs in the separated fragments. (2 marks)

1. Smaller fragments of DNA will move faster
2. Compare the distance moved by each fragment to see how the different fragments contain a different number of bases.


Scienists need to take precautions when they carry out restriction mapping. They need to make sure that the enzyme they used has completely digested the DNA. One change they may carry out is to add the sizes of fragment together. How could the scientists use this information to show that the DNA has not been completely digested? Explain your answer. (2 marks)

1. Large pieces of DNA present
2.Add up to more than total length of original DNA
3. Because this would add undigested to total original DNA


Papaya plants reproduce sexually by means of seeds. Papaya plants grown from seeds are very variable in their yield. Explain why. (2 marks)

1. Meiosis occurs
2. Crossing over/ Independent segregation occurs
3. Fusion of genetically different gametes/ random fertilisation


Explain the advantage of growing papaya plants from tissue culture rather than from seeds (1 mark)

1. Will be genetically identical so all plants will have the same desirable characteristics


Explain how an increase in the iguana's body temperature affects its oxygen consumption when it is at rest (3 marks)

1. Increase in temperature increases the rate of reactions
2. More ATP needed
3. Oxygen consumption increases so more aerobic respiration can occur


The units in the table allowed the scientists to compare the oxygen consumption's of different iguanas. Explain how. (1 mark)

1. Units given per gram


The behaviour of the desert iguanas keeps their body temperatures within a narrow range. Explain how. (2 marks)

1. Outside the optimum temperature the iguana moves between sun and shade.
2. To either warm up or cool down


At high temperatures, a desert iguana keeps its mouth wide open and breathes in and out rapidly. This is called panting. Explain how panting helps to reduce the body temperature of an iguana. (2 marks)

1. Panting allows evaporation of water from the lining of the mouth
2. Heat transferred from the blood to the outside environment


Transcriptional factors are important in the synthesis of particular proteins. Describe how. (2 marks)

1. Bind to the DNA
2. At the promoter sequence
3. Stimulates transcription


Explain what causes the siRNA to attach to only one sort of mRNA molecule. (1 mark)

1. siRNA has a complementary base sequence to only one molecule of mRNA


Describe and explain how expression of the target gene is affected by siRNA (2 marks)

1. Target gene no longer able to make the specific protein
2. Because the mRNA has been cut into smaller pieces


Scientists have suggested that siRNA may be useful in treating some diseases. Suggest why siRNA may be useful in treating disease. (2 marks)

1. Some diseases are genetic/ caused by mutations
2. siRNA will stop the production of proteins coded for by this gene


Hydrolysis and condensation are important in the formation of new proteins. Explain how. (2 marks)

1.Hydrolysis of proteins produces amino acids
2. Protein synthesis involves condensation
3. Hydrolysis of polysaccharides to provide energy for protein synthesis


Most of the protein stored in the body of a fly larva is a protein called calliphorin. Explain why different adult proteins can be made using calliphorin (1 mark)

1. Amino acids can be rearranged into different sequences