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Flashcards in Kantian Ethics Deck (22)
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1




Moral agents



An individuals ability to make a moral judgement based on some notion of right and wrong

2




Ought implies can



If you are supposed to do something then you should be able to do it

3




Summum bonum



The highest good or ultimate good according to which values and priorities are established

4




Categorical imperative



An unconditional moral obligation that is always binding irrespective of a persons inclination pr purpose

5




Universability



A moral law which is obeyed by all people in all situations at any point in history

6




Duty



Duties are created by the moral law and to follow it is our duty

7




End in themselves



Treated with respect deserved of a unique rational being not as a way of getting something else

8




Means to an end



Using people for another purpose

9




Good will



A person of good will makes decisions according to the moral law, the categorical imperative

10




Hypothetical imperative



A moral obligation that applies only if one desires the implied goal

11




Kingdom of ends



An imagined future in which all people act in accordance

12




Maxim



Another word for moral rules determined by reason

13




Kantian quote



“He does good not from inclination, but from duty”

14




A priori synthetic



A priori=knowledge before experience

Synthetic=From circumstances in the world as we find it (provable true or false)

15




1st formula



- Universalise your action into a universal law
- What is fair for one is fair for all
- “Always act so the maxim of your action can be willed as universal”

16




2nd formula (humanity)



- Respect all human beings as having absolute dignity and don’t use them for yourself
- “Always treat human beings as an end in themselves, never simply as a means to an end”

17




3rd formula (autonomy)



- Authority for me to decide, considering the interests of all, on the basis of a shared humanity and my own autonomy
- “So act if you were a law-maker in a kingdom of ends”

18




The 3 postulates
(Ideas put forward)



- Freedom=The power of a priori reason
- Immortality=The reward for a dutiful life
- God=The source of the objective law

19




Noumenal realm



- Intelligible world
- Inaccessible world of things in themselves
- Constant and unchanging

20




Strengths



- Clarity
- Consistency
- Dignity and equality

21




Weaknesses



- rigidity
- Harshness
- Speceism
- Conflicting duties

22




Phenomenal realm



- Animals follow their desires and inclinations only
- No reason
- Behave according to empirical laws of cause and effect, led by their appetite and instincts