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GOV 3A Electoral processes and direct democracy > Key Concepts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key Concepts Deck (10):

What are swing states?

What are the two types or swing states

states that can go either to the GOP or Democrats at any election, they change hands

two types
-50/50 voter states (e.g. Ohio)
- states with lots of swing voters (e.g. Florida)


What are insider and outsider candidates?

Insider candidates are those who have been involved in US politics for a long time and have usually been in Washington for a long while.
(e.g. Hillary Clinton)

Outsider candidates are newcomers to politics and are not part of the establishment
(e.g. TRUMP, also he desired to 'drain the swamp' i.e. get rid of these insiders in the white house)


What is the Caucus system?

In sparsely populated states there may be a caucus system instead of a primary. This is like a series of big meetings across a state. Voters are able to see how other vote.
(e.g. Iowa has a caucus)


What is a balanced ticket?

when the presidential nominee and running mate have characteristics that neatly balance each other so that the ticket is more desirable to the electorate


What are fixed terms?

When a politician or elected official can only remain in a post for a certain number of years and this is pre decided.


What is the difference between open, closed and invisible primaries?

a closed primary means only registered party supporters can vote in that election. An open primary allows anybody to vote in the election, hence it leads to 'wrecking tactics' as was seen with Rick Santorum 2012

The 3-4 years preceding an election year, Candidates test the water and seek to establish themselves in public opinion polls and state 'straw polls', winning name recognition as well as visiting key primary states (such as New Hampshire and Iowa), making an unofficial campaign website and appearing coverage on TV talk shows. Candidates must shows they have popularity and the ability to show sufficient financial resources to wage an effective, long-term campaign.


What is negative campaigning?

criticising opponents in campaigns instead of promoting the candidate themselves. Electoral finance laws in the US mean this sort of campaigning is ver prominent.


What is the difference between soft and hard money?

hard money- money spent on electioneering

soft money- money not spent on direct electioneering, could be on get out and vote drives or party building activities


what is momentum?

Momentum for a campaign is when a victory or recognition carries a candidate to success. e.g. winning Iowa gave Obama momentum in 2008


What are candidate and issue-centred campaigns?

Some campaigns are about issues whereas others are about the candidates. In the USA campaigns are less about Party than in the UK

Bernie Sanders v Hillary Clinton - issues
Hillary v Trump - candidate centred