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Flashcards in Key Concepts and Additional Concepts Deck (11)
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Every person is a unique individual who develops in a social and environmental setting in which he or she is influenced by, and interacts with, other persons and groups. Communication, the sharing of values and beliefs, and cooperation are major interactions. The identity achieved by each individual is the result of interactions at the micro, meso and macro levels of society.



Society is made up of people, groups, networks, institutions, organisations and systems. These aspects of society may include local, national, regional and international patterns of relationships and organisation. People belong to informal and formal groups, and within and between these groups there are patterns of interactions that contribute to unique cultures.



Culture refers to the shared knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that give each society its coherence, identity and distinctive way of life. Culture is demonstrated by the beliefs, customs, values, norms, rules, laws, governance, arts, technologies and artefacts that people generate and use as they interpret meaning from their world and solve present and future problems. Culture is dynamic and undergoes change, and is therefore not static.



Every society is located in a particular physical setting and interacts with its environment. The attitudes and values that people have in regard to their environment greatly affect interactions between persons, society, culture and the environment. Unique culture is generated from the interactions with the immediate environment. Different locations and their environments – including urban, rural, coastal, inland and isolated – present societies and their cultures with both opportunities and constraints.



Every person, society, culture and environment is located in a period of time and is changing with time. Time can be examined as past, present and future. Our perceptions of time are drawn from past events and these influence our ideas about the present. These perceptions need not, however, determine possible ideas of a future. The concept of time is best studied in context – last century, this century, and pre- and post-events – or as a particular decade. Time is studied in relation to continuity and change.



Power is the ability or capacity to influence or persuade others to a point of view or action to which they may not always agree. Exercising power is important in initiating or preventing change.



Authority is linked to power and the right to make decisions and to determine, adjudicate or settle issues and disputes in society. Authority is best understood as the legitimate use of power. The use of authority is important in the process of decision-making and in initiating change and maintaining continuity.



Gender refers to the socially constructed differences between females and males. Social life – including is organised around the
dimensions of this difference the cultural ideals, identities and stereotypes of masculinity and femininity and the sexual division of labour in institutions and organisations. Gender reflects the value a society places on these social constructs, which are particular and unique to a society.



Identity refers to the sense of self and can be viewed from a personal, social and cultural level. Identity is formed over a period of time and is the result of interactions at the micro, meso and macro levels of society. An identity has dimensions or layers that create a sense of inclusion in a group or culture. Contributing factors to one’s identity may be gender, sexuality, family, class, ethnicity, beliefs, social status, group membership and national pride.



The term ‘technologies’ refers to all the tools that we use to assist our interactions in society. Technologies can lead to innovation and can initiate change to micro, meso and macro operations in society. The value placed on technologies at any level of society influences the rate of change to society and culture. Technologies are constantly changing and adapting and their impact varies over time. Communication-based technologies facilitate the interaction between the micro, meso and macro levels of society.



Globalisation is the process of integration and sharing of goods, capital, labour, services, knowledge, leisure, sport, ideas and culture between countries. Globalisation is evidenced in
the emergence of global patterns of consumption and consumerism; the growth of transnational corporations; global sport; the spread of world tourism; and the growth of global military and economic systems. Globalisation is assisted by technologies and media integration, resulting
in an increasing consciousness of the world as a single place.