What year was the Act of Union passed?
What year was Catholic Emancipation?
What was Catholic Emancipation?
Gave Catholics the right to stand in elections, however the fact that very few owned their own land meant they could not vote
What year was the Fenian Brotherhood set up
Who set up the Fenian Brotherhood
What was the significance of 1867?
Fenian uprisings in Chester and Kerry Fenian Risings across Ireland Clan na Gael founded in New York Manchester Martyrs executed Clerkenwell explosion
Pre 1867 the Fenian’s were seen as a nuisance - after this date the cartoons show them as more as a threat
What year was the Reform Act passed, increasing the number of people that could vote?
What dates were Gladstone’s First Term in Power?
1868 - 1874
What year did Gladstone declare he was to ‘Pacify Ireland’ (First year of office)?
How did Gladstone get Prime Minister the first time around?
The 1867 Reform Act meant he was the product of the People’s votes
What were Gladstone’s 3 initial reforms during his first office
1869 - Disestablishment of the Church Act
1870 - First Land Act
1873 - University Bill
What dates were the three Land Acts?
What year was the Home Rule Association set up?
Who set up the Home Rule Association?
What was the Disestablishment of the Church Act?
All legal connection between the Church and the State was ended. Church property was confiscated
Why was the impact of the Home Rule Association so small at first?
The people had faith in Gladstone after his Churches Act and attempt at a Land Act
What did the First Land Act grant?
Ulster Custom - tenants could not be evicted if they could pay their rents + compensation for improvements
Eviction - eviction = compensation
Land purchase - state paid 2/3
Why was Gladstone’s initial reforms not massively successful?
Very complex situation
Churches act was successful - improved situation and therefore moral - displayed understanding of situation
This emphasises the ineffectiveness of the following Bills because he had such a successful opening
Land Act of 1870 possessed a compromise - he tried to please too many people - didn’t end up pleasing anyone
Universities Bill of 1873 - ineffective and unpopular
What year was the Land League established?
Who was in Parliament between 1874 - 1880?
Disraeli - Conservative Government
What was the initial Aim of the Land League?
Fixity of Tenure
What year was the Land War issue?
1879 - 1880
What year was Parnell made president of the Land League?
1879 - but avoided violence by travelling to America for duration of Land War
What year did the Home Rule Party become the IPP under Parnell’s leadership?
What years was Gladstone’s second term in office?
What did Gladstone respond to the Land War with?
Coercion and Concession
Who was the leader of the IPP when it was created from the Home Rule Party In 1880?
What was the Coercion Act?
People suspected of a crime could be detained without trial
What significant figure was arrested as a result of the Coercion Act?
Michael Davitt - Founder of the Land League
Who was Michael Davitt?
Founder of the Land League
What year was the Second Land Act
What was the significance of the Second Land Act in 1881?
3Fs had been passed = success of the Land League
- Land League ceased to exist
- Focus became Home Rule
What year was the Kilmainham Treaty?
What were the terms of the Kilmainham Treaty?
Gladstone agreed: to relax Coercion Act and amend Land Act
Parnell agreed (in return): to use his influence to stop the violence and support future Land Acts –> He was released on those terms
What date were the Phoenix Park Murders?
May 6th 1882
What year did Parnell set up the National League and what was it?
1882 - the electoral wing of the IPP with the aim of ‘national self-government’
When did the Catholic church come out in favour of Home Rule?
What year was Parnell’s ‘ne plus ultra’ speech?
When did Parnell and his Party switched to Conservative to remove Gladstone from power? - political manipulation
June 9th 1885
What year was the Hawarden Kite?
What was the Hawarden Kite?
Herbert Gladstone leaked to the press that his father was planning on implementing Home Rule
- Herbert believed Chamberlain was attempting to split the party up so doing this would by William Gladstone more time with the Liberals
- Soon became clear the Lord Salisbury’s Conservative government had no intention of supporting Home Rule - the support switched back to Gladstone
1886 election - Parnell and the IPP held the balance of power (86 seats) who did they side with?
Gladstone and the Liberals for the sake of Home Rule
Why did Gladstone introduce Home Rule?
Hawarden Kite - people’s expectations
He wrongly believed a revolutionary situation existed in Ireland
Won 1886 election thanks to Parnell’s balance of power - in favour of Home Rule - desire for Political Tranquillity
He felt forced - rushed through it
What year was the First Home Rule Bill introduced?
What was the main objection of the first Home Rule Bill?
Gladstone did not keep his colleagues informed so made the mistake of removing Irish MPs Parliament - removing Ireland from the main source of power
Who forged the letters to frame Parnell?
What year were the forged letters against Parnell proved to be fake?
What year was Parnell and Kitty O’shea’s affair exposed?
Parnell refused to resign in 1880 after his affair with Kitty O’shea was exposed, what did the IPP split into as a result of this?
The Irish National League under John Redmond (pro-Parnell)
The Irish National Federation under Jon Dillon (against Parnell)
What year does Parnell die?
What year was Gladstone’s third term in office? (only lasted one year due to failure of first home Rule Bill)
What years was Gladstone’s final term in office?
1892 - 1894
What year was the Second Home Rule Bill?
What years were the three Home Rule Bills
What year was Constructive Unionism begun and under which Prime Minister?
1895 - 1902 = Lord Salisbury’s Conservative government
What was Constructive Unionism?
- Land reforms
- Local Govt. (Ireland) Act `898
- Recess Committee 1895 - 1896
- All Ireland Committee 1897
- Wyndham Land Act `903
What year was Sinn Fein created and by who?
1905 by Arthur Griffith
Who created the Ulster Unionists and when? And who quickly replaced them as the new leader?
1905, by Colonel Edward Sanderson - replaced by Walter Long in 1906
What year did Arthur Balfour and the Conservative Government resign?
Who replaced Walter Long as head of the Ulster Unionists in 1906?
Who was Edward Carson?
Head of the Ulster Unionists from 1906
Who ran the Liberal government from 1905 - 1908?
Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman
Who ran the Liberal government 1908 - 1916?
Who ran the Liberal Government from 1916 - 1922?
David Lloyd George
What were the 2 focuses of the Liberal government after the failure of the second Home Rule Bill?
Preventing obstructions in the House of Lords
What 3 reforms did the Liberal government put in place 1907-1909 in an attempt to achieve Social Reform?
1907 Irish Council Bill - withdrawn due to criticism
1908 Irish Universities Act - Amalgamating 3 leading Universities to provide better education for Catholics
1909 Land Act - introduced the idea of compulsory purchase
What year was the Parliament Act passed?
When were the discussions of Partition brought to Lloyd George and Winston Churchill?
What year was the Third Home Rule Bill and what was the significance of it happening so fast?
1912 - showed the significance of the Parliament Act of 1911
When was Covenant Day?
28th September 1912
What year was the UVF set up?
Who set up the Ulster Unionists?
Captain James Craig
When was the Dublin Lock Out?
What was created as a result of the 1913 Lockout in Dublin?
Irish Citizen Army
Who led the strikes of the Dublin Lockout?
What were the nationalist and unionist opinions on partition when it was made public in September 1913?
Redmond (Nationalist) - they would accept no form of partition, they wanted a united Ireland
Carson (Unionist) - Publically denounced the idea but in private acknowledged it would be the best for those 6 counties
What year was the IVF founded?
Compare the numbers of members in the IVF and UVF by 1914
IVF - 160,000
UVF - 100,000
When was the Curragh Mutiny?
What happened in March 1914
The Curragh Mutiny
When was the Larne Incident?
24th / 25th June 1914
When was the Third Home Rule Bill passed through Lords?
When was the Howth Incident?
July 16th 1914
How much weaponry did the IVF obtain in the Howth Incident?
1500 guns and 25000 rounds of ammunition
How many Irish men enlisted to help in WWI?
150,000 - 170,000
Who was the Secretary of State in WWI?
What did the UVF become in WWI fighting for Britain?
36th Ulster Division
Who lead the 10,000 Irish volunteers who refused to fight for Britain?
Which of the Irish Volunteers was first to Join the IRB and became part of their Supreme Council and Supreme Military Council?
What did the IRB take control of and use for propaganda in the form of Cultural Nationalism?
Gaelic League, Gaelic Association and Literary movement
- Used Gaelic League to disguise military drills
Who was the Fenian Leader during the later years of the time period? (approx. 1914+)
Why did James Connelly agree with the IRB to support the Rising?
He thought there was enough Fenian, Nationalist and Irish Citizen Army Support - covering Nationalism, socialism and war effort
When did the Easter Rising Take Place?
Easter Sunday 1916
How many Irish Volunteers took part in the Eater Rising?
What were Pearse and Connelly’s roles during the Easter Rising?
Connelly = military leadership Pearse = in charge of declaring Irish Republic
When did Pearse surrender the Easer Rising?
29th April 1916
How many died in the Easter Rising?
450 - 250 were innocent civilians
What happened in Early May 1916?
15 of the 90 sentenced to death after the Easter Rising were executed - including Connelly who was shot in his chair - moral credence
The other 75’s sentences were commuted to imprisonment - including Eamon de Valera
What did Sinn Fein campaign against successfully in May 1918?
The conscription Act of 1916
What year did Sinn Fein win the election by an overwhelming majority thanks to the ‘Representation of the People Act’ of 1918, giving people the right to vote?
Sinn Fein could not legitimately claim to represent the will of the People of Ireland
When was the Dail Eireann created and by who?
21st Jan 1919 - a provisional government under Eamon de Valera
When did the IRA become the IRB and under who?
1919, Michael Collins
When was the trigger of the Anglo Irish War of two police officers killed by the IRA in an attempt to obtain explosives?
End of Jan 1919
What happened of the 31st of Jan 1919?
IRA DECLARES WAR ON BRITAIN
When does Lloyd George finally acknowledge the existence of the Anglo-Irish War?
When was the Government of Ireland Act Passed?
End of 1920
When did Sinn Fein finally take responsibility for the actions of the IRA?
When does the government of Ireland Act (passed at the end of 1920) come into effect?
Who became Prime Minister of the 6 Ulster Counties under the Government of Ireland Act?
Sir James Craig
When was the Truce agreed for the Anglo Irish War and who agreed it?
11th October 1921 - de Valera and Lloyd George
When was the Anglo Irish treaty signed?
What did Lloyd George do to rush the signing of the Anglo Irish Treaty?
Threats of an imminent war in 3 days
Who became in charge of the new government set up as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty?
- De Valera and the ‘anti-treaty faction’ remained against the verdict
When did the irregulars seize the Four Courts?
When was Collins killed and how?
August 1922, as a result of the Guerrilla conflict from the violence that began in the Four Courts
After Arthur Griffith’s death in 1922, who took over from him as head of the Irish Government?
When did Northern Ireland opt out of the Irish Free State?
Who wrote the constitution that pleased the Dail and the British during the Civil War?
William Costgrove - head of the new Irish Government
Who was Liam Lynch?
Leader of the irregulars
Who’s death signalled the end of the Civil War?
How many people are said to have died during the Irish conflict?
Up to 5,000