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Flashcards in key study: milgram (1963) Deck (12)
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1
Q

aims

A

whether ordinary people would obey seemingly inhumane instructions, whether varying situational factors would affect obedience

2
Q

participants

A

40 volunteers by advertising it as a ‘memory and learning experiment’

3
Q

procedures

A

volunteers were told they would be the ‘teacher’ and the other participant (confederate) mr wallace would be the ‘learner’ decided by a rigged coin flip. the learner was placed in an adjoining room so the teacher couldn’t see them but could hear them

4
Q

procuedures pt2

A

each time the learner got an answer wrong the teacher was to give them an electric shock increasing the voltage each time, the labels below the 375V read ‘danger, severe shock’ and the last switch was labelled 450V. mr wallace kept getting answers wrong and acted in pain, after a while yelling about a heart condition and refusing to take part, the experimenter in the room told the teacher ‘the experiment requires you continue’, after 315V the learner was silent but the experimenter insisted it continue

5
Q

conclusions

A

ordinary people are astonishingly obedient to authority when asked to behave in an inhumane manner, the results were unexpected and gives the ‘only obeying orders’ defence some credibility and an individuals capacity for making independent decisions may be suspended in these situations

6
Q

variations

A

milgram conducted 18 variations of his obedience study

7
Q

uniform variations

A

the original study had the experimenter wearing a grey lab coat as a symbol of authority, a variation where the experimenter was called away by a phone call and replaced by an ‘ordinary member of the public’ in every day clothes saw obedience levels drop to 20%

8
Q

proximity variation

A

the teacher had to force the learners hand down on a shock plate when they refused to participate after 150V, obedience fell to 30% as they are no longer protected from seeing the consequences of their actions

9
Q

social support variations

A

two other participants (confederates) were also teachers but refused to obey, the first stoped at 150V and the second at 210V, their presence reduced obedience to 10%

10
Q

location variation

A

the experiment was moved to a set of run down offices rather than the impressive Yale University, obedience dropped to 47.5%

11
Q

two teachers variation

A

when participants could instruct an assistant to press the switches 92.5% shocked to the maximum 450V, when there is less personal responsibility obedience increases

12
Q

evaluations

A

a key insight into social behaviour, lack of ecological validity, small sample size, ethical breaches of psychological harm