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1

Middle Passage

Atlantic crossing from Africa to Americas, month long trip, extremely perilous and horrifying

2

Racial slavery

turned into slavery based on race - VA passed laws

3

Encomieda System

labor system, conquistadors ruling, natives and africans on lower levels, mixed families higher up

4

House of Burgesses

Created by VA Company. Could make laws and levy taxes
Governor and company in England could veto actions

5

Frontier of exclusion vs. inclusion

Inclusion- spain, france, netherlands
mixed caste society
Exclusion- england
pushed away or killed

6

New Spain territories

CA, mexico, NM, TX, FL, Cuba, Puerto Rico, AZ

7

England territories

NORTHERN:
NE: Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island
Chesapeake: Virginia, Maryland
MIDDLE: New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and PA
SOUTHERN: VA, MA, SC/NC, GA
Caribbean: Jamaica, Barbados

8

New Netherland territories

new york, st. eustatius

9

New France territories

area from st. lawrence river through Great Lakes and down mississippi river
St. Kitts, Haiti

10

Chesapeake colonies locations

VA, MA

11

Pequot War

Puritans allied w other Indian groups
Massacred intentionally
in VA
Showed shocking level of no mercy
Europeans wanted to make an example of them

12

John Winthrop sermon

emotion
against predestination more
almost scared people into believing again
wanted to move away from secularism

13

Three people who were banished from Puritan communities

Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson

14

Middle Colony Life

Export economy flourished
Land taking from natives
European migrants held tightly to traditions (ethnically and culturally diverse communities)

15

Caribbean

Cash crops
Hard labor - slavery

16

Pietism and the Great Awakening

Christian movement originating in Germany emphasized pious behavior and emotional worship
revive doctrines of puritan ancestors
opposed age of reason
low classes found appealing

17

Old Lights

old- opposed revivalism/emotional enthusiasm, challenged new ministers, opposed women speaking in church, opposed enlightenment

18

Enlightenment

scientific revolution
made people question everything
eroded at power of church
wanted to reform church, gov, etc for better society
support for deism
supported more "loving" God

19

England middle colonies settlers

diverse (english/german quakers, dutch, french, scottish, irish) religious toleration
farming, trade, small # slaves, town meetings

20

Navigation Acts

colonial trade was making its way to other nations' colonies, so introduced these acts
kept trade in English hands
many english merchants ignored them and continued trading w foreign merchants

21

Salutary neglect

economics- england did little to stop violations of navigation acts, as long as colonies sent raw materials, didn't see need to keep close supervision
politics- board of trade created to oversee colonies, governors more loyal to colonies at this point (paid their salaries)

22

New lights

new- new ministry of evangelicals, challenged authority of established church, allowed women to speak in church, opposed enlightenment

23

New lights

new- new ministry of evangelicals, challenged authority of established church, allowed women to speak in church, opposed enlightenment

24

effects of Great Awakening

increase in new churches and denominations
bold confrontation of religious authority changed attitude towards authority in general
fostered national consciousness: all colonists shared this event in common

25

Both Great Awakening and Enlightenment,,,

caused people to question traditional authority
stressed importance of individual
increased ideas through print culture

26

Both Great Awakening and Enlightenment,,,

caused people to question traditional authority
stressed importance of individual
increased ideas through print culture

27

colonial identity (british) - economics

all regions - relative autonomy
often violate british laws

28

colonial identity (british)- culture

print culture bridges gaps between regions
enlightenment, great awakening, racial ideology, religious diversity create common consciousness

29

colonial identity (british)- politics

autonomous political communities based on english law, all property owning white men could vote

30

england's colonies developed...

taste for self-government, but were still loyal to the crown

31

england's colonies developed...

taste for self-government, but were still loyal to the crown

32

life in Maryland

porprietary colony
religious toleration (so catholics could continue practicing)
tobacco plantation colony w indentured servants

33

Stone Rebellion

Black uprising in SC that killed 45 whites
Largest uprising in British colonies

34

South Atlantic System

produces tropical/subtrop. products for an international market
centered in West Indies
SUGAR
Dutch dominated the British took over

35

What stimulated british economy?

slave labor(free) and guns

36

British made huge metchant naval fleet.., which...

led the way for British navy supremacy

37

why sugar was so profitable

sugar cost high to buy, slave labor low price
exploitation

38

Southern Gentry

needed connections to become a part of it,
planter merchants in VA were trapped by inferior
Planters tried to model themselves like gentry (sophisticated lifestyles, educated children)
colonial status, became self sufficient
(how Chesapeake survived tobacco crash)

39

Indian War of 1622

Openchancanough opposed treaties and rules that Indian be brought up in Christian lifestyle
Coordinated surprise attack (killed 1/3 english settlers)
English fought back for a decade without peace

40

Revoked VAs charter to English colony after..

Indian War of 1622

41

Model for English royal colonies

appointed governor, elected assembly, formal legal system, Anglican church

42

Iroquois

Capitalize on location in NY to dominate region b/n French and English colonies
Inflicted terror on neighbors
Formed alliance w English against French
(half king) French and Indian War

43

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)

Ohio Valley
Britain and France wanted it
Half King allied w Britain

44

Roger William

Founded Rhode Island colony
religious toleration
no elected church
questioned how Puritans treated NAs

45

NC vs SC

NC: poor families, former indentured servants
- equality minded protestant sect
- refused to work on large manors
- insp. by bacons rebellion
SC:
- white settlers from Barbados
- wanted to create slave hierarchy
- based on slaves and plantations

46

SAS led to

salutary neglect
(was so prosperous)
coastal cities became thriving port cities

47

Post Glorious Revolution...,

English limited power of the crown, used Colonial Assemblies