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Define the term 'amoral'.

NEITHER MORAL NOR IMMORAL
1. (Of a person) to have no moral rules or principles.
2. (Of an act) done without thought or reference to moral values.

Eg: Brushing your teeth is an amoral act.

1

Define the term 'moral'

An action is considered moral if it is perceived to be 'good' or conforms to the set of values of the person performing the act.

2

Define the term 'immoral'.

An action is considered to be immoral if it is perceived to be 'bad' or does not conform to the set of values of the person performing the act.

3

Define the term 'absolutism'.

A universal and unchanging set of moral rules.
Eg: The 10 commandments, the UDHR.

4

Define the term 'relativism'.

Moral rules that change according to the situation.

5

What are the 3 key components of relativism?

1. The situation (Eg: killing one to save a thousand)
2. The society (Eg: drinking is wrong in some Islamic cultures)
3. The person (Eg: differences in personal opinion- sexuality etc)

6

Define the term 'objective'.

Based on external act and must be true regardless of how we feel, our opinion or culture.

7

Define the term 'subjective'.

Based on personal opinion and can therefore vary from person to person and place to place.

8

Define the term 'teleological ethics'.

Teleological ethics are concerned with the CONSEQUENCES of actions.

A teleological theory maintains that the rightness or wrongness of an action is decided by the consequences it produces.

Actions are not intrinsically good, they are INSTRUMENTALLY good.

Eg: Utilitarianism

9

Define the term 'deontological ethics'.

Deontological ethics is considered with the NATURE OF THE ACTS themselves.

Deontologists maintain that acts are INTRISICALLY right or wrong in themselves

Eg: Natural law

10

Give an example of teleological thinking.

It's okay to steal food if you are starving.
It's okay to torture a terrorist to find the location of a bomb.

11

Give an example of deontological thinking.

Murder is always wrong.
Torture is always wrong.
You should always tell the truth.
It's your duty to respect your parents.

12

Give a strength and a weakness of deontological thinking.

One strength is that it provides strong moral boundaries.
One weakness is that it it inflexible.

13

Give a strength and a weakness of teleological thinking.

One strength is that is flexible.
One weakness is that (arguably) some actions like peadophilia can never be justified.