Flashcards in Key words/formulas and their points Deck (64)
A species that is a proton donor
The minimum energy required to start a reaction by breaking bonds
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions
atom economy = molecular mass of the desired product / sum of molecular masses of all products x100
A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins
Average bond enthalpy
The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous specie
Protons in nucleus
Number of atoms per mole of a carbon - 12 isotope (6.02x1023)
A substance that increases rate of a chemical reaction without being used up
Positively charged ion
H atoms on same side
H atoms in different sides
Shared pair of electrons
Show the movement of a pair of electrons
Diative covalent bond
Shared pair of electrons provided by one bonding atom only
Where a more reactive element replaces a less reactive element from an aqueous solution of latter's ions
-forward reaction rate is equal to reverse reaction rate
A measure of attraction of a bonded atom for a pair of electrons in a covalent bond
Repulsion of electrons from different inner shells
An atom that us attracted to an electron rich centre or atom where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
Removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
Simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
Enthalpy of products is greater than enthalpy of reactants resulting in heat being taken in from surroundings
Standard enthalpy change of combustion
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.
Standard enthalpy change formation
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions.
Standard enthalpy change of reaction
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.
Alcohol + carboxylic acid > ester + water
Enthalpy of the products is smaller than the enthalpy of the reactants resulting in heat loss to surroundings
The process in which the absorption and subsequent emission of IR by atmospheric gasses warms the lower atmos and planets surface
-similar chemical properties
-same number of outer electrons
If a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route.
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ ion) and an anion (– ion).
The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group, but with each successive member differing by CH2.
An electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
First ionisation energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form a gaseous 1+ ion
le Chatelier's Principle
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the position of equilibrium will shift to minimise the change.
Protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
Amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon 12 isotope
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron- deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
A type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
% yield = actual amount, in mol, of product/ theoretical amount, in mol, of product x100
-horizontal row of elements
-trends in properties
Regular periodic variation of elements with atomic number and position in the periodic table
Overlap of p orbitals
Build up of products in a chain reaction
Species of an unpaired electron
Relative atomic mass
The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative formula mass
The weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one- twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative isotopic mass
The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative molecular mass
The weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one- twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Single c-c bonds
Specific heat capacity
Pressure of 100kPa
Temperature of 298K
Concentration of 1 mol dm-3
Same structural formula but different arrangement of atoms in space
Same molecular formula but different structural arrangement of atoms
An atom or group of atoms is replaced
Two radicals combine to form a molecule