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AS AQA Physical Geography > Keywords > Flashcards

Flashcards in Keywords Deck (26)
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1

Precipitation:

moisture falling from the atmosphere in the form of something such as rain or snow.

2

Infiltration:

the absorption and downward movement of water into the ground.

3

Interception:

capture of rainfall on buildings or by vegetation, e.g rainforest.

4

Stem flow:

flow of precipitation along the stems of a plant to the ground.

5

Surface runoff:

flow of water across the surface of the ground.

6

Transpiration:

loss of moisture from vegetation.

7

Groundwater flow:

movement of water through rocks.

8

Throughflow:

roughly horizontal movement of water through rocks.

9

Evaporation:

transfer from liquid to a gas.

10

Condensation:

transfer from gas to a liquid.

11

What is an acquifer?

an underground layer of water bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (like chalk or sandstone) where 30% of freshwater is held.

12

What is soil moisture budget?

the balance of water fluxes into and out of a defined area over a defined time period.

13

What is the water table?

upper layer of saturated rock which fluctuates in response to groundwater flow, water abstraction by people or additional recharge needs to be a constant state of equilibrium.

14

Radiation fog:

heat radiating from the surface, cools the bottom air until it reaches saturation at night.

15

Ablation:

natural removal of snow/ice from the surface of a glacier. It can occur through melting or sublimation or near the front.

16

Equilibrium line:

the altitude where annual accumulation and removal are equal.

17

Tributary:

small river connected to a main river.

18

Confluence:

the point where two rivers meet and join.

19

Mouth of the river:

where a river meets a lake or the sea.

20

Source:

the area where the river begins.

21

Watershed:

the boundary between two drainage basins marked by a ridge of highland.

22

Drainage basin:

the area which is drained by a river and its tributaries.

23

Drainage density:

the total length of all the streams in the basin divided by the total area of the basin.

24

Baseflow:

groundwater flow that feeds into rivers and through the river beds and banks.

25

Interflow:

is water flowing downhill through permeable rock above the water table.

26

River discharge:

the volume of water passing a given point, a measurement of runoff at a certain time.