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Flashcards in kidney 3 Deck (11)
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1

what are the 2 functions of the juxta-glomerular apparatus?

connects distal convoluted tubules with glomerulus
measure and respond to changes in Na+ conc. of filtrate

2

what are the 3 components of the juxta-glomerular apparatus?

macula densa
-detect Na conc.
juxtaglomerular cells
-adjust diameter of afferent arterioles
mesangial cells
-supporting cells

3

what are the steps of the angiotensinogen-system restoring bp via angiotensin II

1. angiotensinogen released into circulation
2. renin converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I
3. angiotensinogen converting enzyme converts angiotensin I into II
4. angiotensin II potent vasoconstrictor-increase bp

4

how is blood volume restored?

angiotensin II binds target receptors on:
1. arterioles- constriction
2. hypothalamus - thirst
3. pituitary - release ADH
4. adrenal medulla- release aldosterone

5

what are the consequences of chronic kidney disease?

inadequate removal of fluid and waste products of metabolism
inappropriate activation of RAAS

6

what are the causes of CKD?

hypertension
diabetes
high cholesterol
kidney infections
glomerulonephritis
polycystic kidney disease
kidney stones
long-term use of NSAIDS

7

what are the symptoms of CKD?

hypertension
nausea
oedema
-ankles, hands, feet, lungs
blood/protein in urine
anaemia
weak/painful bones

8

how is hypertension regulated?

diet(reduce salt/weight loss)
combination tx
diuretics (furosemide)
ace inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker
aldosterone agonist

9

how does furosemide work?

targets NKCC2
-Na reabsorptio

10

describe stage 5 kidney failure

end-stage renal disease
less than 15% function
dialysis/ transplant rn

11

what is dialysis?

artificial removal of wastes, solutes, water and toxins from blood
2 types:
haemodialysis
peritoneal dialysis