Kidney Stones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kidney Stones Deck (25):
1

Calcium stone precipitation pH

Calcium phosphate = increased pH/alkaline
Calcium oxalate = decreased pH/acidic

2

Most common type of kidney stone

Calcium oxalate
Calcium phosphate

3

What is the only radiolucent type of stone?

Uric acid

4

Radiopaque stone(s)

Calcium
Struvite
Cystine

5

Struvite stones are made up of which 3 components?

Magnesium
Ammonium
Phosphate

6

Struvite stone precipitation pH

Increased pH (alkaline)

7

Uric acid stone precipitation pH

Decreased pH (acidic)

8

Cystine stone precipitation pH

Decreased pH (alkaline)

9

Which 2 stones precipitate in alkaline conditions?

Calcium phosphate
Struvite

10

Envelope or dumbbell shaped urine crystals

Calcium stones

11

Coffin lid urine crystals

Struvite stones

12

Rhomboid or rosette urine crystals

Uric acid stones

13

Hexagonal urine crystals

Cystine stones

14

Treatment for calcium stones

Hydrochlorothiazide = Ca sparing diuretic (keeps Ca out of urine)
Citrate

15

Stones due to infection with urease + bugs that hydrolyze urea to ammonia (alkalinizes urine)

Struvite (Magnesium, Ammonium, Phosphate)

16

Which 3 bacteria are urease positive?

Proteus mirabilis
Staphylococcus
Klebsiella

17

Stone(s) associated with staghorn calculi

Struvite --> think adult
Cystine --> think child

18

Risk factors for which type of stone include hot, arid climates, low urine volume, and acidic pH?

Uric acid stones

19

Most common stone seen in patients with gout?

Uric acid stones

20

Which type of stone is seen in diseases with increased cell turnover (leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders)?

Uric acid stones
Hyperuricemia increases risk

21

What is the genetic defect associated with cystinuria that leads to cystine stones?

Defect of tubules that results in decreased reabsorption of cysteine

22

Treatment for uric acid and cystine stones

Hydration and alkalinization of urine (potassium bicarbonate)

Allopurinol also given to patients with gout

23

What is the most common kidney stone presentation?

Calcium oxalate stone in patient with hypercaciuria and normocalcemia

24

Calcium oxalate crystals can result from which 3 conditions?

Ethylene glycol
Vitamin C abuse
Crohn disease

25

Treatment for struvite stones

Eradication of underlying infection and surgical removal of stone
(Staghorn calculi can act as a nidus for UTIs)