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Flashcards in Kin Selection Deck (19):
1

Altruism

an action that reduces an individuals own fitness while increasing the fitness of another individual

2

inclusive fitness

Direct Fitness (# offspring) plus equivalents gained through support

3

Nash Equilibrium

best strategy given others responses

a strategy that is the best response, given other participant’s responses --> no-one benefits further unless multiple participants agree to change their strategies

4

Evolutionarily Stable Strategy

a strategy that cannot be invaded by a rare mutant using an alternative strategy

a special case of Nash equilibrium

5

Prisoners Dilema

Turn in for 0 charge, confess for chance at min charge, or get turned in and face full charge

Nash equilibrium: best strategy given others strategy so if your partner talks you should talk and if they don't you shouldn't either

6

Cooperatively Breeding

some members forego reproduction while in the group, help elsewhere

May risk death by defending the colony.
Devote energies toward rearing of young of others (helping at the nest).

7

Eusocial

individuals cooperate in the care of young

There is reproductive division of labor, with sterile (or nearly sterile) workers assisting fecund individuals.

8

Kin Selection (Hamilton 1963)

Selection acting on individuals related through recent, common descent

9

Hamiltons Rule

Fitness = direct fitness + r x fitness effect on relatives

Fitness = direct fitness + indirect fitness

Inclusive Fitness

10

Hamilton's Rule (CONT)

c = cost to altruist
b = benefit to altruist relatives
w = fitness if selfish

11

prairie dog watcher

acting selfishly because he has least chance of being eaten

12

Haplodiploidy

Females develop from fertilized eggs (Diploid)

Males develop from unfertilized eggs (Haploid)

13

Reciprocal Altruism

Altruism is rewarded with altruism

Defectors are ‘punished’ because they do not receive cooperation in the future (ex. vampire bats)

14

Cost of helping

fitness when not helping - fitness when helping

15

Benefit

fitness when helped - fitness when not helped

16

what is the formula for fitness if being altruistic?

w - c + r x b

17

when should you act altruistically?

c fitness if selfish

18

what is r?

relatedness, r, the probability that two individuals share a particular allele
group members are more similar to one another than to members of other groups

19

how do you figure out relatedness of siblings for haplodiploids?

chance the mother gave the chromosome to the kid x the chance the kid picked the mothers chromosome = (1/2)(1/2) = 1/4 related to sibling

change dad gave the chromosome x chance kid picked the chromosome = (1)(1/2) = 1/2 related

total relatedness = (1/4) + (1/2) = 3/4 related

females are more related to their sisters than their daughters! r = .75 vs r=.5