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Functional Anatomy > Knee > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Deck (59):
1

What are the two joints of the knee joint?

The tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral

2

What articulates in the tibeofemoral joint?

The shallow tibial plateau and the large femoral condyles

3

What is genu valgum?

Knees in

4

What is Genu varum?

Knees out

5

What is the role of the menisci?

wedge to improve joint congruency
shock absorption
decrease friction

6

Where is most of the pressure in single leg stance placed?

On the medial condyle of femur (larger)

7

Arthrokinematics knee flexion

Anterior roll with posterior glide

8

Arthrokinematics knee extension

Posterior roll with anterior glide

9

What is the difference in size btwn the borders and center of the menisci?

Borders are thick, center is thiner

10

What tibiofemoral joint alignment will you often see in OA?

Genu Varum (pain @ medial femoral condyle so put more pressure on lateral condyle), with TOES OUT to reduce load on femoral condyle

11

What is a knee adduction moment?

Putting more pressure on the medial side. can be measured in gait lab

12

What are the pointed portions of the menisci called?

Anterior and posterior horn

13

Which meniscus has more ligamentous attachments?

The medial meniscus

14

What parts of the meniscus attach to the ACL?

Anterior and posterior horn of medial meniscus

15

How are the medial and lateral menisci connected?

Transverse ligament

16

Which meniscus attaches to the PCL?

The lateral meniscus

17

What happens during compression at the tibiofemoral joint without a meniscus?

Loads will increase on a smaller surface area, which may cause a disruption in hyaline cartilage

18

What is the mechanical axis?

Where does the force go through (right through the femur and the tibia)

19

What is the anatomical axis?

follows the line of the femur

20

What is terminal rotation/screw home mechanism?

Rotation of tibia on femur or femur on tibia
(WB: medial rotation of femur on tibia; NWB: lateral rotation of tibia on femur)

21

What muscle unlocks the "screw home mechanism" of knee?

The popliteus

22

What is the structure of the MCL?

Broad, flat and long

23

When is the MCL taut? What is its primary role? Secondary role?

during extension. Limits valgus stress. Resist tibial anterior translation

24

What are the two components of the MCL?

Superficial-attaches from posterior ligament to medial femoral ligament (primary restraint of valgus force)
Deep- (attacks to medial meniscus, continuous w/ jt capsule)

25

What is the structure of the lateral collateral ligament?

Cordlike and thick

26

What tendon does the lateral collateral ligament join with?

The biceps femoris tendon

27

When is the LCL taut and relaxed?

Taut in extension, relaxed in flexion

28

Does the LCL attach to the lateral meniscus?

Nah

29

What is the attachment of the LCL?

Lateral femoral condyle to the fibular head

30

What is the structure of the ACL?

Oblique fibers

31

What is the ACL attach to

Lateral anterior portion of the tibia and the lateral femoral condyle (posterior-medial mortion)

32

What is the ACL responsible for?

Anterior stability (Anterior translation of the tibia)
prevent hyperextension

33

What are the two bundles of the ACL?

anteromedial (AMB)
Posteriolateral (PLB)

34

What does the PLB of the ACL limit?

Anterior translation in extension

35

What does the AMB of the ACL limit?

anterior translation with a flexed knee

36

What portion of the knee gets torn with a flexed knee and rotation?

AMB

37

What is the structure of the PCL?

Broader, shorter, less oblique (than ACL)

38

What does the PCL restrain?

Posterior translation of the tibia

39

What are the two bundles of the PCL?

Anteriolateral
Posteriomedial

40

Which is easier to repair ACL or PCL?

ACL

41

When does the ALB best limit posterior translation?

Beginning portions of flexion

42

When does the PMB best limit posterior translation?

Extension
Deeper squats--> increased flexion

43

What does the patella articulate with?

The femur

44

Which facet of the patella has the most hyaline cartilage?

The medial facet, because of the high compressive loads applied to it

45

What is a patellectomy?

Removal of the patella

46

What happens with a patellectomy?

Decreased moment arm, increased compression, altered angle of pull

47

What does the patella do?

Increases the moment arm of the quadriceps and acts as an anatomical pulley

48

What is Patella alta?

Patella is higher

49

What is Patella baja?

Patella is lower

50

How is normal patellar tracking described?

A "c" curve

51

What happens to the patella during tracking?

Travels upward along patellofemoral groove

52

What happens to the patella during flexion?

Patella rotates, tilts laterally

53

What happens to the patella during extension

Patella rotates, tilts medially

54

What are the two posterior capsule ligaments?

arcuate ligament
oblique popliteal ligament

55

What is the primary fxn of the posterior capsule ligaments?

Restrain hyperextension
both are taut in extension

56

The oblique popliteal ligament reinforces which part of the joint capsule?

posteromedial

57

The arcuate ligament reinforces which part of the joint capsule?

posterolateral

58

What are the attachments of the arcuate ligament?

tendon of popliteus and posterior capsule to posterior fibular head (lateral arcuate head) and oblique popliteal ligament (medial arcuate head)
(remember, it is Y-shaped and has to heads)

59

What are the attachments of the oblique popliteal ligament?

central posterior joint capsule and tendinous expansion of semimembranosus to the posterior medial tibial condyle