Flashcards in Gait powerpoint Deck (61):
What are the two phases of gait?
Stance and Swing
What are the three tasks that go on in gait?
Weight Acceptance, Single Limb Support, Limb Advancement
What is stride length?
The length of a complete gait cycle (R foot single leg to R foot single leg) 2 steps in a stride
What is step length?
Initial contact to contralateral contact
What percent of gait cycle is stance phase?
What percent of gait cycle is swing phase?
What are the components of the stance phase?
Preswing (push off)
What are the components of the swing phase?
What is gait velocity?
(the sixth vital sign, predicts function)
meters/unit of time
Influenced by height
What is cadence?
Steps per unit of time
Will depend on height
What happens to the BOS during walking?
What happens to BOS if step width increases/decreases?
SW increase = increase BOS
SW decrease = Decrease BOS
What is a way to increase BOS?
What is the average vertical displacement?
What is the center of pressure?
Area of foot that receives the most pressure; COP moves medial toward great toe during stance
How much 1st MTP extension do you need to adequately push off?
What are the goals of Initial contact?
What are the goals of loading response?
Weight bearing stability
Preservation of progression
What are the goals of mid stance?
Progression over the stationary foot
Stability of limb and trunk
What are the goals of Terminal stance?
Progression of body beyond support foot
Stability of limb and trunk
What are the goals of the Pre-Swing/push off phase?
Position limb for swing
Provide propulsion and stability
What are the goals for the initial swing phase?
Advancement of the limb from its trailing position
What are the goals for Mid-swing
What are the goals for terminal swing?
Complete limb advancement
Prepare limb for stance
What is double support?
When both limbs are on the ground
Which side of pelvis will drop during gait?
Hip contralateral to stance leg will drop
What is Torque?
Aka moment or moment of force-Tendency of a force to rotate an object around an axis.
What is an internal moment?
Moments generated by the muscles, joint capsules, and ligaments to counteract the external forces acting on the body
What is an external moment?
GRFV, gravity that are acting on the body
What is a support moment?
Sum of the hip, knee, ankle moments (extensors)
keeps you up.
If the axis is behind the GRFV in the hip what will happen?
The hip will extend
If the axis is in front of the GRFV in the hip what will happen?
The hip will flex
If the axis is behind the GRFV in the knee what will happen?
The knee will flex
If the axis is in front of the GRFV in the knee what will happen?
The knee will extend
What type of contraction happens during power generation? What type of work does this result in?
concentric contraction, positive work
What type of contraction happens during power absorption? What type of work does this result in?
eccentric contraction, negative work
What % of the gait cycle is initial contact?
What % of the gait cycle is the loading response?
What % of the gait cycle is Mid stance?
What % of the gait cycle is Terminal stance?
What % of the gait cycle is Pre-swing/push off?
What % of the gait cycle is initial swing?
What % of the gait cycle is Mid swing?
What % of the gait cycle is Terminal swing?
What muscle groups make up the support moment?
The hip extensors, the knee extensors and the ankle plantarflexors
When are the hamstrings active in the gait cycle (hip)?
Active eccentrically @ initial contact by working with the gluteus to control hip flexion
When is gluteus maximus active concentrically the gait cycle?
Active concentrically @ loading response and Mid Stance to extend the hip
After this, the HAT segment goes beyond the COM and momentum takes you forward
When are the hip flexors active in the gait cycle?
Active concentrically @ initial swing
Active eccentrically @ mid stance to control hip extension
Active concentrically @ push off
When are the vast muscles (lateralis, medialis, intermedialis) active during the gait cycle?
Active from Initial Contact to Terminal stance
Start eccentrically with knee flexion then end concentrically when knee is being extended
When is the rectus femoris active @ the knee (and hip) during the gait cycle?
Active @ transition from terminal stance to swing
Initiates hip flexion (concentric)
Controls knee extension
When are the hamstrings active at the knee during the gait cycle?
Active eccentrically @ Terminal stance to decelerate tibia --> Loading response where they co-contract with the quads
When is gastroc active @ the knee in the gait cycle?
Active at Terminal stance --> Push off to transfer energy from the ankle to the knee
Works in reverse action to unlock the knee for swing
Describe Anterior Tibialis activity @ the ankle during the gait cycle?
Eccentric contraction during loading response
Concentric-->Isometric @ initial swing-->Terminal swing for foot clearance
Describe gastroc-soleus activity @ the ankle during the gait cycle?
Acts eccentrically to control DF during midstance to terminal stance
Concentrically @ push off
When is Gluteus Medius contracting eccentrically (in the frontal plane)?
during loading response
What happens to the hip adductors contract concentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?
Contract concentrically from initial contact to loading response
When are the hip adductors contracting eccentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?
Contraction eccentrically from the loading response to Midstance
When is the Gluteus Medius contracting concentrically (in the frontal plane)?
When are the peroneals contracting concentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?
Contracting concentrically during push off
When is Tibialis Posterior contracting eccentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?
Eccentrically controls hindfoot eversion at loading response