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Flashcards in Gait powerpoint Deck (61):
1

What are the two phases of gait?

Stance and Swing

2

What are the three tasks that go on in gait?

Weight Acceptance, Single Limb Support, Limb Advancement

3

What is stride length?

The length of a complete gait cycle (R foot single leg to R foot single leg) 2 steps in a stride

4

What is step length?

Initial contact to contralateral contact

5

What percent of gait cycle is stance phase?

60%

6

What percent of gait cycle is swing phase?

40%

7

What are the components of the stance phase?

Initial contact
Loading response
Midstance
terminal stance
Preswing (push off)

8

What are the components of the swing phase?

Initial swing
Mid swing
Terminal Swing

9

What is gait velocity?

(the sixth vital sign, predicts function)
meters/unit of time
Influenced by height

10

What is cadence?

Steps per unit of time
Will depend on height

11

What happens to the BOS during walking?

Constantly changing

12

What happens to BOS if step width increases/decreases?

SW increase = increase BOS
SW decrease = Decrease BOS

13

What is a way to increase BOS?

Toes out

14

What is the average vertical displacement?

~3.2 cm

15

What is the center of pressure?

Area of foot that receives the most pressure; COP moves medial toward great toe during stance

16

How much 1st MTP extension do you need to adequately push off?

55 degrees

17

What are the goals of Initial contact?

Limb Positioning

18

What are the goals of loading response?

Shock Absorption
Weight bearing stability
Preservation of progression

19

What are the goals of mid stance?

Progression over the stationary foot
Stability of limb and trunk

20

What are the goals of Terminal stance?

Progression of body beyond support foot
Stability of limb and trunk

21

What are the goals of the Pre-Swing/push off phase?

Position limb for swing
Foot clearance
Provide propulsion and stability

22

What are the goals for the initial swing phase?

Foot clearance
Advancement of the limb from its trailing position

23

What are the goals for Mid-swing

Limb advancement
Foot clearance

24

What are the goals for terminal swing?

Complete limb advancement
Prepare limb for stance

25

What is double support?

When both limbs are on the ground

26

Which side of pelvis will drop during gait?

Hip contralateral to stance leg will drop

27

What is Torque?

Aka moment or moment of force-Tendency of a force to rotate an object around an axis.

28

What is an internal moment?

Moments generated by the muscles, joint capsules, and ligaments to counteract the external forces acting on the body

29

What is an external moment?

GRFV, gravity that are acting on the body

30

What is a support moment?

Sum of the hip, knee, ankle moments (extensors)
keeps you up.

31

If the axis is behind the GRFV in the hip what will happen?

The hip will extend

32

If the axis is in front of the GRFV in the hip what will happen?

The hip will flex

33

If the axis is behind the GRFV in the knee what will happen?

The knee will flex

34

If the axis is in front of the GRFV in the knee what will happen?

The knee will extend

35

What type of contraction happens during power generation? What type of work does this result in?

concentric contraction, positive work

36

What type of contraction happens during power absorption? What type of work does this result in?

eccentric contraction, negative work

37

What % of the gait cycle is initial contact?

0-2%

38

What % of the gait cycle is the loading response?

2-12%

39

What % of the gait cycle is Mid stance?

12-31%

40

What % of the gait cycle is Terminal stance?

31-50%

41

What % of the gait cycle is Pre-swing/push off?

50-62%

42

What % of the gait cycle is initial swing?

62-75%

43

What % of the gait cycle is Mid swing?

75-87%

44

What % of the gait cycle is Terminal swing?

87-100%

45

What muscle groups make up the support moment?

The hip extensors, the knee extensors and the ankle plantarflexors

46

When are the hamstrings active in the gait cycle (hip)?

Active eccentrically @ initial contact by working with the gluteus to control hip flexion

47

When is gluteus maximus active concentrically the gait cycle?

Active concentrically @ loading response and Mid Stance to extend the hip
After this, the HAT segment goes beyond the COM and momentum takes you forward

48

When are the hip flexors active in the gait cycle?

Active concentrically @ initial swing
Active eccentrically @ mid stance to control hip extension
Active concentrically @ push off

49

When are the vast muscles (lateralis, medialis, intermedialis) active during the gait cycle?

Active from Initial Contact to Terminal stance
Start eccentrically with knee flexion then end concentrically when knee is being extended

50

When is the rectus femoris active @ the knee (and hip) during the gait cycle?

Active @ transition from terminal stance to swing
Transfers energy
Initiates hip flexion (concentric)
Controls knee extension

51

When are the hamstrings active at the knee during the gait cycle?

Active eccentrically @ Terminal stance to decelerate tibia --> Loading response where they co-contract with the quads

52

When is gastroc active @ the knee in the gait cycle?

Active at Terminal stance --> Push off to transfer energy from the ankle to the knee
Works in reverse action to unlock the knee for swing

53

Describe Anterior Tibialis activity @ the ankle during the gait cycle?

Eccentric contraction during loading response
Concentric-->Isometric @ initial swing-->Terminal swing for foot clearance

54

Describe gastroc-soleus activity @ the ankle during the gait cycle?

Acts eccentrically to control DF during midstance to terminal stance
Concentrically @ push off

55

When is Gluteus Medius contracting eccentrically (in the frontal plane)?

during loading response

56

What happens to the hip adductors contract concentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?

Contract concentrically from initial contact to loading response

57

When are the hip adductors contracting eccentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?

Contraction eccentrically from the loading response to Midstance

58

When is the Gluteus Medius contracting concentrically (in the frontal plane)?

During midstance

59

When are the peroneals contracting concentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?

Contracting concentrically during push off

60

When is Tibialis Posterior contracting eccentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?

Eccentrically controls hindfoot eversion at loading response

61

When are the peroneals contracting eccentrically during the gait cycle (in the frontal plane)?

Contracting eccentrically during Terminal stance