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Orthopedic Special Tests > Knee > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Deck (11):

McMurray Sign

Positive: Clicking sound or pain by the knee joint

Indicates: Tear of the medial meniscus if positive on external rotation.
Tear of the lateral meniscus of positive on internal rotation.
The higher the leg is raised when positive is elicited, the more posterior the meniscal injury


Medial Collateral Ligament test

aka Abduction Stress Test
aka Valgus Stress Test

Positive: Gapping and/or elicited pain above/at/or below joint line

Indicates: Torn medial collateral ligament


Lateral Collateral Ligament Test

aka Adduction Stress Test
aka Varus Stress Test

Positive: Gapping and/or elicited pain above/at/or below joint line

Indicates: Torn lateral collateral ligament


Bounce home test

Positive: Knee does not go into full extension (slight flexion remains)

Indicates: Diffuse swelling of knee, accumulation of fluid, due to possible torn meniscus


Drawer Test

Positive: 1) Gapping greater than 6mm (tibia moves posterior) when the leg is pushed
2) Gapping greater than 6mm (tibia moves anterior) when the leg is pulled

Indicates: 1) Torn posterior cruciate ligament
2) Torn anterior cruciate ligament


Apprehension test for the Patella

Positive: Apprehension, distress of facial expression, contraction of quadriceps to bring patella back in line

Indicates: Chronic patella dislocation or predisposition to dislocation


Patella Formal Grinding Test

aka Clarke Sign

Positive: Retropatellar pain and the patient is unable to hold the quadriceps contraction.

Indicates: Degenerative changes of the patellar facets and/or within the throchlear groove (chondromalacia patella)


Patella Ballottment test

Positive: A floating sensation of the patella

Indicates: A large amount of swelling in the knee


Apley compression test

Positive: Patient points to side of pain

Indicates: Pain in medial side is medial meniscus tear, pain on lateral side indicates lateral meniscus tear


Apley distraction test

Positive: Patient will point to side of pan

Indicates: Pain on the medial side indicates medial collateral ligament tear. Pain on the lateral side indicates lateral collateral ligament tear.


Lachman Test

Positive: Gapping with the tibia moving away from the femur

Indicates: Anterior cruciate ligament or posterior oblique ligament instability