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Flashcards in Knee Deck (23):
0

Biceps femoris

O- LH ischial tuberosity
SH- linea aspera
I- lateral head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
A- extends thigh at hip joint and flexes knee
N- sciatic N

1

Knee ultrasound indications

Acute trauma
Overuse injuries
Chronic pain, selling or locking of the knee joint

2

Knee joint pathology

-joint fluid in the supra patellar bursa
- commonly seen in trauma, inflammatory, infiltrative and degenerative disorders
- synovial proliferation or pannus shows as a loculated, hypoechoic sometimes

3

Joint effusion pathology

-joint fluid in suprapatellar bursa
-commonly seen in trauma, inflammatory, infiltrative and degenerative disorders
-synovial proliferation or pannus shows as a lobulated, hypoechoic sometimes hypervascular mass within bursa

4

Quadriceps Tendon pathology

-Tendinopathy
-partial tears
- ruptures

5

Patellar Retinaculum

-patellar tears- diffuse thickening
-full thickness tears- focal anechoic defect

6

Prepatellar and superficial infra-patella bursa pathology

Bursitis- fluid and or thickening in prepatellar soft tissues
-use lots of gel and very light transducer pressure

7

Deep infra-patellar bursal pathology

Bursitis deep to the patella tendon-a small amount of fluid is normal, compare to the contralateral side

8

Patellar Tendon Pathology

Tendinopathy- "Jumpers Knee" - focal thickening of the tendon, increased vascularity usually at the patellar attachment
- calcification within the tendon can be seen in chronic tendinopathy
- partial tears
- complete rupture- patella is displaced superiorly

9

Medial knee Pathology

MCL, medial meniscus, Pes anserine bursa and tendons

10

Anterior knee pathology

Joint effusion, quadriceps tendon, patellar retinaculum, patellar and superficial infra- patellar bursa, deep infra-patellar bursa, patellar tendon

11

MCL pathology

- most commonly injured ligament in the knee
-strain-thickening of ligament
-partial tear - usually in deep layer
-O'Donoghues Triad- ACL, MCL and the medial meniscus tear sequentially

12

Pes Anserins pathology

-Bursitis- fluid between the Pes anserine tendon insertion and the tibia
- Pes anserine syndrome - acute or chronic inflammation leading to tendinitis, enthesitis, bursitis or a combination of all three

13

Lateral knee Pathology

Popliteus tendon, LCL, iliotibial band friction syndrome, lateral meniscus

14

Popliteus tendon pathology

Tendinopathy with or without an associated bursitis

15

LCL pathology

-partial tears
-complete tears
- tears usually sited at distal attachment
- do not confuse the overlying biceps femoris as focal thickening of the ligament

16

Iliotibial band friction syndrome

- runners knee
- thickening of the band with or without an underlying bursitis
-avulsion fracture at Gerdy's tubercle

17

Lateral meniscus pathology

Tears- usually occur medially
Cysts- meniscal or parameniscal - can be uni or multlocular

18

Posterior knee pathology

Gastrocnemius- semimembranosus bursa, PCL

19

Gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa

Bakers cyst- simple or complex, may dissect, rupture or sequester

20

PCL pathology

- tears usually in conjunction with MCL, meniscal or bony injuries
-cysts often seen overlying PCL

21

Popliteal

O- lateral condyle of femur
I- proximal posterior tibia
A- flexes leg, rotates leg medially
N - tibial N

22

Rectus femoris

O- ASIS and ilium above acetabulum
I- patella, then tibia via patella tendon
A- extends leg and flexes thigh
N- femoral N