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Muscloskeletal Ultrasound > Innovation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Innovation Deck (13):
0

Fusion/ smart fusion/ percunav image fusion and navigation

Displays real timeU/S with another modality in the previously acquired in the same plane eg Ct, MRI, PET.
This enables direct comparison between U/S and other modalities
- can mark points in the body
-Can provide needle tracking
-Can visually track your position during the scan
- allows U/S to be used for biopsies or injections on lesions that may be difficult to determine conventionally on U/S
-avoids radiation, gantries, coils, non ferrous materials being required and position dependent scanning
- guides for biopsies, ablations etc to be directed to a ROI

1

Higher frequency transducers/ imaging

- improves superficial resolution 15, 17, 20 MHz
-Improvements in penetration capabilities
- Doppler sensitivity has improved allowing detection of very small microvasculature
- power Doppler has increased sensitivity to lower flow states and is less angle dependent

2

Small foot print

- originally for intra operative work
- allows easier access between joints and awkward spaces eg UCL of thumb
- intra oral for salivary gland calc

3

Extended field of view

- by sliding the transducer along an extended area and expanded FOV can be displayed
- allows structures too large for the conventional FOV
- excellent for large muscle tears

4

Widescreen

- allows a wider image display for linear, curvilinear and sector probe

5

X- Res, SRI

- improves basic B- mode image
- real time processing algorithm which reduces speckle and increases resolution, border definition and continuity by decreasing clutter allows better visualisation of structures with low echogenicity

6

Compound imaging

- conventional B- mode uses a single line of site while compound imaging uses multiple ( up to 9) overlapping scans of an object from different view angles by electronically steering the beam
- reduces speckle, clutter and acoustic artifacts
- Compound imaging

Increases contrast and detail definition for better tissue differentiation
Increases visualisation of border interfaces

7

Tissue Harmonics

- tissue is non- linear so does contain an harmonic component
- Fundamental ultrasound is transmitted at a certain frequency
- the signal resonates from the tissue at twice the transmitted frequency, the harmonic. This higher frequency travels one way to the transducer so is not attenuated
- returned signals do not include the fundamental frequency and are therefore virtually free of artefacts such as haze and clutter
- harmonics provide better visualisation of tissue interfaces especially in technically difficult patients and dramatically reduces artifacts within anechoic structures

8

Pulse Inversion, ensemble Tissue Harmonic Imaging

2 U/S pulses down each line of site with the phase of the second pulse shifted 180 degrees. Returning signals then added digitally
- if reflective source is linear, the 2 signals will cancel if non- linear they will combine to produce an image
- allows micro bubbles to detected at higher resolution

9

Contrast

- used to characterise malignant from benign
- Injected intravenously it is a stable microbubble small enough to pass through the pulmonary circulation and stable enough to be visualised in the vascular system
- used to detect blood flow in vessels too small or too deep for conventional imaging
- used with harmonic imaging echoes from solid tissue and red blood cells themselves are suppressed

10

3D

- acquisition of a volume of data, which can the be reproduced in planes that would be difficult to obtain
- can be stored and manipulated for later
3D Doppler - allows demonstration of branching
4D- Real time
STIC- spatio- temporal image correlation
Increased evaluation of fetal heart
Presents the fetal heart beating in a multiplaner display with and without colour, preserving spatial relationships in B and C planes

11

Matrix

- uses multiple elements
- allows real time scanning of multiple image planes simultaneously

12

Elastography/ shear wave

- calculates the elasticity of cells and displays as a colour overlay
- tumour cells and inflammatory processes harden cells
- Elastography is manual compression and relies on the operator
- Shear wave is performed by the transducer therefore highly reproducible and quantitative measurements can be made