Knee Flashcards Preview

Ortho Lab > Knee > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...
1

Knee
Bony Palpation

1) Patella
2) Medial tibial plateau
3) Tibial tubercle
4) Medial femoral condyle
5) Lateral tibial plateau
6) Lateral femoral condyle
7) Fibula head

2

Knee
Soft Tissue Palpation

1) Quadriceps muscles (palpate as a unit and Individually)
• Vastus Lateralis
• Vastus Medialis
• Vastus Intermedius
• Rectus Femoris
2) Infrapatellar Tendon
3) Bursae
• Prepatellar
• Superficial infrapatellar
4) Medial meniscus
5) Lareal meniscus 7) Popliteal fossa
6) Pes anserine area 8) Lateral collateral ligament
•Sartorius
9) Medial collateral ligament
•Gracilis
10) Gastrocnemius muscle
•Semitendinosus

3

Knee
Ranges of Motion

Active and Passive
1) Flexion 135°
2) Extension 0°
3) Internal rotation “Raise knee to 90° then rotate”
4) External rotation “Raise knee to 90° then rotate”

4

McMurray Sign

Positive:
Clicking sound or pain by knee joint

Indicates:
Tear of medial meniscus if positive on external rotation
Tear of lateral meniscus if positive on internal rotation.
The higher the leg is raised during when positive is elicited, the more posterior the meniscal injury.

5

Medial Collateral Ligament Test
a.k.a
Abduction Stress Test
a.k.a
Valgus Stress Test

Positive:
Gapping and/or elicited pain above/at/or below joint line

Indicates:
Torn medial collateral ligament

6

Lateral Collateral Ligament Test
a.k.a
Adduction Stress Test
a.k.a
Varus Stress Test

Positive:
Gapping and/or elicited pain above/at/or below joint line

Indicates:
Torn lateral collateral ligament

7

Bounce Home Test

Positive:
Knee does not go into full extension (slight flexion remains)

Indicates:
Diffuse swelling of the knee, accumulation of fluid, due to possible torn meniscus

8

Drawer Test

Positive:
1) Gapping > 6mm (tibia moves posterior) when the leg is pushed
2) Gapping > 6mm (tibia moves Anterior) when the leg is pulled

Indicates:
1) Torn posterior cruciate ligament “Push”
2) Torn anterior cruciate ligament “ Pull”

9

Lachman Test
Gold Standard

Positive:
Gapping with tibia moving away from the femur

Indicates:
Anterior cruciate liament or posterior oblique ligament instability

10

Apprehension Test for the Patella

Positive:
Apprehension, disress of facial expression, contraction of quadriceps to bring patella back in line.

Indicates:
Chronic patella dislocation or pre-disposition to dislocation.

11

Patella Femoral Grinding Test
a.k.a
Clarke Sign

Positive:
Retropatellar pain and the patient is unable to hold the quadriceps contraction.

Indicates:
Degenerative changes of the patellar facets and/or within the trochlear groove (chondromalacia patella)

12

Patella Ballottment Test

Positive:
A floating sensation of the patella

Indicates:
A large amount of swelling in the knee

13

Apley Compression Test

Positive:
Patient points to side of pain

Indicates:
Pain on medial side is medial meniscus tear. Pain on the lateral side indicates lateral meniscus tear.

14

Apley Distraction Test

Positve:
Patient will point to side of pain

Indicates:
Pain on the medial side indicates medial collateral ligament tear. Pain on the lateral side indicates lateral collateral ligament tear.