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Flashcards in Know All The Things Deck (251)
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Do endotoxins have local & specific effects?

Answer: No! Know that endotoxins have a general systemic effect: these effects include fever, DIC, hemorrhage (not local or specific effects!).


A dog has mange. What is a likely secondary skin infection?

Answer: A dog with mange (caused by Demodex canis, for example) can develop a secondary Staphylococcus infection. The Staphylococcus infection is an opportunistic infection to the mange. Bacteria that cause pus are called suppurative, pyogenic, or purulent, & include Staphylococcus. Pyoderma means any skin disease that is pyogenic.


What causes "Greasy Pig Disease" in pigs?

Answer: Staphylococcus causes "Greasy Pig Disease" in pigs.


What causes "Strangles" in animals?

Answer: Streptococcus causes "Strangles", a disease that is not confined to horses!


What is uniquely difficult about treating Enterococcus?

Answer: Enterococcus causes diarrhea & is frequently multi-drug resistant! (VRE = vancomycin resistant enterococci).


What causes caseous lymphadenitis & pyelonephritis?

Corynebacterium (pseudotuberculosis or renale group) is associated with caseous lymphadenitis & pyelonephritis (aka, kidney infection).


What is a cause of endocarditis in dogs?

Answer: Erysipelothrix can cause endocarditis in dogs


What causes "Diamond Skin Disease" in pigs?

Answer: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes "Diamond Skin Disease" in pigs.


An animal with head tilt may be suffering from what pathogen?

Answer: Listeria can present as a frank infection that includes diarrhea (many of these cases are written off as something else), & then a minority of Listeria cases show neurological signs with a head tilt, ears down, & eyes half open.


What causes foal pneumonia with a case fatality rate as high as 50%?

Rhodococcus causes foal pneumonia, & has a case fatality rate as high as 50%!


What causes "limberneck" in birds?

Answer: Clostridial infections can be either histo-toxic or neuro-toxic; "limberneck" occurs in birds that consume fish that have botulism toxin in them (& is therefore neuro-toxic).


What causes "Lumpy Jaw"?

Answer: Actinomyces can cause "lumpy jaw" in cattle. Actinomycosis or "lumpy jaw" produces immovable hard swellings on the upper & lower jawbones of cattle, commonly at the central molar level. It is caused by an anaerobic micro-organism, Actinomyces bovis.


What causes "rain rot"?

Answer: Dermatophilus is associated with "rain scald", "lumpy wool", & strawberry foot rot.


If a human is bitten by a cat, what is the most likely infection that can follow in the bit human

Pasteurella multocida is in the oral cavities of cats (& dogs), & can get passed onto (& into!) humans in the form of a bite; Pasteurella multocida causes wound infection.


What is the causative bacterial agent of "Shipping Fever"?

Answer: Mannheimia is part of the Pasteurellaceae Family & is the causative agent of "Shipping Fever". Enzootic pneumonia of calves refers to infectious respiratory disease in calves. Enzootic pneumonia is primarily a problem in calves less than 6 months of age with peak occurrence from 2-10 weeks of age, but "Shipping Fever" may be seen in calves up to 1 year of age.


What causes atrophic rhinitis

Pasteurella is associated with atrophic rhinitis. Atrophic rhinitis (atrophy means to waste away) is a widespread & economically important swine disease caused by Pasteurella multocida & Bordetella bronchiseptica.


What is the causative agent of "Snuffles" in rabbits?

Answer: Pasteurella is associated with "Snuffles" in rabbits. "Snuffles" is a general term describing a group of upper respiratory signs in rabbits. While there can be different causes of these infections, the most common & generally accepted cause of "Snuffles" is infection with Pasteurella multocida.


What can cause cystitis is dogs?

Answer: Haemophilus is associated with cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) in dogs


A cow is found to have TEME (thromboembolic meningoencephalitis); what is a likely bacterial cause?

Histophilus is associated with TEME (thromboembolic meningoencephalitis); Histophilus is also associated with pneumonia & septicemia.


What causes "Kennel cough"?

Answer: Bordetella bronchiseptica is the causative agent of "Kennel cough"; it can also cause atrophic rhinitis when in combination with Pasteurella multocida.


What causes "pink eye" in cattle?

Answer: Moraxella causes "pink eye" in cattle (keratoconjunctivitis), & also corneal ulcers


Would Moraxella be likely to cause hematuria?

Answer: No! Moraxella is associated with "pink eye" in cattle; however, histo-toxic Clostridium is associated with "red water" (hemoglobinuria)


What species of animal would most likely be vaccinated for Moraxella?

Answer: Cattle; Moraxella is a cattle problem; IgA is needed to kill Moraxella since it's on the mucosa of the eye.


What does Taylorella cause?

Answer: Taylorella is the causative agent of CEM (contagious equine metritis), which is purulent endometritis.


What can cause discospondylitis (a form of osteomyelitis) in dogs?

Answer: Brucella canis; discospondylitis is an infection in the intervertebral disc space & is a form of osteomyelitis


How does Campylobacter fetus venerealis in cows most commonly manifest?

Answer: Campylobacter fetus venerealis manifests as extended estrus cycles, endometritis, & silent abortion


In adding antibiotics to the pig feed to kill off the Brachyspira, what are you trying to prevent?

Dysentery; Brachyspira is responsible for 30% of pig dysentery cases & is controlled by antibiotics like Metronidazole; the other 3rds of pig diarrhea are caused by Lawsonia & the Enterobacteriaceae.


.How is Leptospira spread?

Leptospira loves the water & is often spread by urine


What causes "moon blindness" in horses?

Answer: Leptospira; "moon blindness" is also called periodic uveitis.


What is associated with foot rot in cattle?

Answer: Dichelobacter nodosus is associated with foot rot; this is a gram (-) anaerobe