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Flashcards in Kumon F - 文法 Deck (19):
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Obligations Expressions (verbs)

Actions which must me carried out

Verbs

〜ないーー>なければならない

1

Imperative form

Strong language - only used in emergencies or when cheering on athletes etc
Used for elders or those that social outrank give orders

U- verbs
Change u row to e row

消す-->消せ 走る-->はしれ
待つ-->待て

Ru-verbs
Change ru to ro
見る-->見ろ 食べる-->食べろ

Irregular
する-->しろ
来る-->来い (こい)

2

Imperative form

Strong language with some politeness - only used for elders or those that social outrank give instructions

ます form with ~なさい instead of 〜ます

U-verbs

歩く-->歩きなさい
走る-->走りなさい

Ru-verbs

見る-->見なさい
食べる-->食べなさい

Irregular verbs

する-->しなさい
来る-->来なさい

3

Imperative prohibitive form

Strong language. Not used in normal conversation.

な is added to the dictionary form

走る-->走るな
する-->するな
来る-->来るな
捨てる-->捨てるな

4

Conditional expressions for verbs.

U-verbs

Change dictionary form う to え and add ば

行く-->行けば
曲がる-->曲げば

Ru-verbs

Change る to れば

降りる-->降りれば
出る-->出れば

Irregular verbs

る becomes れば

する-->すれば
来る-->来れば

Negative all verbs

Change ない to なければ

5

と思う

After dictionary form or verbs and after い-adjectives, add と思う。

After nouns and な-adjectives add だと思う

6

Conditional expressions for い-adjectives.

Affirmative

Change い to ければ

近い-->近ければ
いそがしい-->いそがしければ
*都合がいい-->都合がよければ

Negative

Change ない to なければ

遅くない-->遅くなければ
寒くない-->寒くなければ

7

Conditional expressions for な-adjectives and nouns

な-adjectives

Change だ to なら

Nouns

Add なら

Negative of both

Change ではない to でなければ

8

Cause/reason Expressions

ので/から

Verbs and い-adjectives

Short form +ので\から

The past of nouns and な-adjectives

Short form +ので\から

The non-past of nouns and な-adjectives

Change to なので or だから

から

からです can be used when just giving a reason in short to questions that include なぜ or どうして

9

While~

Time expression

Change the ます of the 〜ます form verb to ながら

10

A took place before B before

Time expression

Change verb to てform before adding から

11

Conjunctions and, so & then

そして ー and

Used when enumeration multiple things and when connecting consecutive things

それで ー so

Used when the preceding sentence is used for the latter sentence. Used in the latter sentence.

するとー then

Used when in response to the preceding thing, it is followed by the next thing that happened or that was realised.

12

Conjunctions - but, however & this is because

しかし ー but

Used when describing things opposite to preceding sentence.

ところが ー however

Used when describing things that are contrary to expectations to preceding sentence.

なぜなら ー this is because

Describing reason to preceding sentence. Used with からだ/からです

13

〜たり〜たり

Used when giving examples

14

Expectation expressions

Change ます to たい

Negative

たくない/たくありません

15

Permission expressions

てもいい

てform - Seeking permissions (か marker) or giving permission

なくてもいい

ない form - not necessary, don't have to.

てもよっかた

て form - could have

なくてよっかた

ない form - didn't have to

16

Prohibitive Expressions

てはいけない

て-form then はいけない/はいけません

17

Experience expressions

Past tense short form た

たことがある
たことがない

18

Advice expressions

Recommending or advising certain actions.

Positive - Past tense short form

たほうがいい

Negative - negative short form

ないほうがいい