- Pka = 4
- Group = Carbonyl + Hydroxyl
- Suffix = -oic acid, Salts = -oate, and dicarboxylic = -dioic acids
Always terminal groups & most oxidized functional group
How are cyclic carboxylic acids named
- List the cycloalkane first
- The suffix will be carboxylic acid
How are salts of Carboxylic Acids Named
- First is the cation
- Ending in -aote
Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
- Polar & Hydrogen bond (creating DIMERS in solution)
- Acidity is enhanced by the Resonance between its oxygen atoms
- Further enhanced by substituents that are electron-withdrawing, and decreased by electron-donating.
- Beta-dicarboxylic acids, like other 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, have alpha hydrogen that is highly acidic.
How is a Carboxylic acid Synthesized?
Oxidation of Aldehydes & 1º Alcohols by
using oxidizing agents like
KMnO4 (potassium permanganate)
Na2Cr2O7 - K2Cr2O7(dichromate salts)
or CrO3 (Chromium trioxide)
Steps for a Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution
Acyl; is a Carboxylic acid derivative carbonyl
- Carbonyl is open via attack
- Tetrahedral intermediate is formed
- Carbonyl reforms, kicking off the leaving group.
If incoming Nucleophile is ammonia or an amine, what forms?
An AMIDE is form
Cyclic amides are Lactams
- Alkyl groups on the nitrogen are placed at beginning of name with N-
- Acidic or basic conditions
If incoming nucleophile is an alcohol, what is formed?
An ESTER is formed
Cyclic esters are named Lactones
- Happens most rapidly with primary alcohols
- Acidic conditions
- Esterification = Condensation Rxn
If the Nucleophile is another carboxylic acid, what is formed?
Carboxylic acids can be reduced to what?
By what reagent?
Carboxylic acids can be reduced to ALDEHYDES (intermediated)
but can also be reduced to PRIMARY ALCOHOLS.
With LiAlH4 (lithium aluminum hydride)
NaBH4 is also a reducing agent but not strong for this specific reaction.
What is decarboxylation?
What compounds undergo decarboxylation spontaneously?
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group (replaced with hydrogen) and releases carbon dioxide (CO2). Usually, decarboxylation refers to a reaction of carboxylic acids, removing a carbon atom from a carbon chain.
The enol form is the tautomerized to the most stable keto form...
beta-keto Acids and Beta-dicarboxylic Acids
undergo spontaneous decarboxylation when heated, this proceeds via a six-membered cyclic intermediate.
What is Saponification?
Mixing long-chain carboxylic acids (Fatty acids) with a strong base
(Na or K hydroxide) results in the formation of salt we call Soap.
- Soaps hydrophilic carboxylate head and hydrophobic alkyl chain tails.
- Soaps organize in hydrophilic environments to form micelles. A micelle dissolves nonpolar organic molecules in its interior and can be solvated with water due to its exteriro shell of hydrophilic groups.