L 20-21 Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Fall 2015 > L 20-21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in L 20-21 Deck (28):
1

Alpha receptors

Epi>NE>>>Isoproterenol
Alpha1: excitatory, Gq
Alpha2: inhibitory, presynaptic, Gi

2

Alpha1 receptors

Phenylephrine–selective Alpha1
Vasoconstriction
Prostate constriction
Ejaculation
Dilate pupils
Pilomotor erection
Contract GU SM

3

Alpha2 receptors

Clonidine–selective alpha2
Causes decreased NT release causing decreased BP and dry mouth

4

Beta receptors

Isoproterenol high affinity for all beta receptors
Gs coupled
Beta1: Isoproterenol>Epi = NE
Beta2: Isoproterenol>Epi>>>NE
Beta3 Isoproterenol = NE >Epi

5

Beta1 receptors

Dobutamine (selective agonist)
Heart and kidney (renin)

6

Beta2 receptors

Albuterol (selective agonist)
RELAX: bronchi, uterus, GI, BV,
Inc K uptake
Glycogenolysis, Gluconeogenesis

7

Beta3 receptors

Lypolysis
relax bladder

8

Sympathetic stimulants that are not catecholamines

Ephedrine
Amphetamine

9

Effect of Phenylephrine on BP and HR

Alpha1 agonist
Causes vasoconstriction=> inc BP
Reflex dec HR

10

Effect of Isoproterenol on BP and HR

Beta agonist
Beta1=> inc HR and contractility=> inc pulse pressure
Bet2=> dec in BP => inc HR (reflex)
Overall: inc HR, dec BP

11

Effect of NE on BP and HR

Alpha and Beta1 agonist
Alpha=> vasoconstriction=> inc BP
Beta1=> Inc CO
With reflex response to inc BP, HR will not change much, but BP will go up
Pulse pressure may not change much

12

Effect of Epi on BP and HR

Alpha and Beta agonist
Alpha=> inc BP
Beta1=> inc HR and pulse pressure
Beta2=> dec BP such that baroresponse is not needed
Overall: inc pulse pressure, inc HR, MAP same

At higher doses, alpha effect accentuated causing inc in BP

13

Phenylephrine

Alpha1 selective agonist

14

Pseudoephedrine

Sudafed
Alpha1 agonist

15

Oxymetazoline

Afrin
Alpha1 agonist used in nasal mucosa

16

Tetrahydrozoline

Visine
Alpha1 agonist used in eyes

17

Clonidine

Alpha2 agonist
acts in brain, reduces NE release=> decreased sympathetic tone in body
Treats hypertension, anxiety
Side effect= dry mouth

18

Apraclonidine

Alpha2 agonist
Used in eye to treat glaucoma by dec Beta2 stimulation

19

Brimonidine

Alpha2 agonist
Used in eye to decrease pressure by dec beta2 stimulation

20

Isoproterenol

Beta agonist
Emergency treatment for cardiac arrest

21

Dobutamine

Beta1 selective
cardiac stress test

22

Albuterol

Beta2 selective
Asthma
Prevents labor
Headache common side effect

23

Ephedrine

Toned down epinephrine
Alpha and Beta agonist

24

Dopamine

Increases renal blood flow

25

Amphetamine

Indirect acting sympathomimetic
Displaces NE and DA from vesicles increasing their release, especially in CNS
Increase alertness, activity, decrease sleep, decrease appetite, euphoria

26

Methylphenidate

Ritalin
Indirect acting sympathomimetic
Like amphetamine
Paradoxical decrease in activity with kids

27

Cocaine

Indirect acting sympathomimetic
Inhibits reuptake of DA and NE
Amphetamine-like effect but shorter acting and more intense
Can cause hypertension and stroke and psychosis

28

Tyramine

Indirect acting sympathomimetic
Found in food
Displaces NE from vesicles causing initial increase in NE release, then replaces vesicles with false transmitter called octopamine which leads to tachyphylaxis (quick no effect)
Usually disabled in GI and Liver by MAO and causes no problems
People on MAO inhibitors may have hypertensive crisis