L11 - Biogeography and Biomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L11 - Biogeography and Biomes Deck (20):
1

Who was the first person to attempt to define global bioregions?

Philip Lutley Sclater - 1858
- Expert on tropical birds from Americas

2

Who can be considered the 'founding father' of biogeography?

Alfred Russel Wallace - 1878
-

3

What are the modern biographic provinces

Nearctic
Neotropical
Palearctic
Afrotropical
Indo-Malay
Australasian

(newer)
Oceanic
Antarctic

4

What are the two main types of Historical Biogeography?

Vicariance Biogeography - The geography of barriers
Dispersal Biogeography - The geography of dispersal

5

Give an example of historical biogeography?

Arid vegetation separated by tropical rainforest.

6

List key barriers

- Continental drift
- Ecosystem change leaving species isolated
- Impassible areas; mountains, deserts, oceans...etc
- Rising and falling sea level

7

List key dispersal mechanisms

- Continental drift
- Wind
- High mobility as a species e.g. Flight

8

Main Cenozoic 'docking events'

50 mya - India-Southern Asia
20 mya - Africa-Southwestern Asia
8 mya - Africa-Southern Europe
3.5 mya - South America-North America

9

Define a biome

"A biological subdivision that reflects the ecological and physiognomic character of the vegetation. Biomes are the largest geographic biotic community that is convenient to recognize"
- Defined by dominant type of natural vegetation
- Many controlling factors
- Independent from biogeographic realms

10

Name key controls effecting biome distribution

- Latitude
- Insolation
- Seasonality
- Length of growing season
- Altitude and topography
- Continentally
- Soil Fertility
Influence Climate
- Precipitation
- Temperature
- Wind Patterns

11

Why are the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn at 23.5o?

- Reflects tilt of the Earth
- Limit of when the Sun may appear directly overhead

12

Name the 14 biomes

Tropical & Subtropical
- T & S Moist broadleaf forest
- T & S Dry broadleaf forest
- T & S Coniferous forests
- T & S Savannah
- Mangroves
- Deserts
Temperate
- Temperate grassland
- Alpine grassland
- Temperate coniferous
- Temperate broadleaf
- Mediterranean
- Flooded grassland
Polar
- Boreal Forest
- Tundra

13

How many freshwater biomes are there

12 - Split into 'lentic' (still) and 'lotic' (flowing)

14

What is an endolithic biome?

The microscopic biomes within rock

15

How many marine biomes are there

14

16

Give an example of a diffuse biome transition?

Elevation

17

Give an example of a sharp biome transition

Temperature-controlled divide between Boreal Forest and Tundra - permafrost

18

What % of the Earth surface was covered in ice 10,000 years ago?

30%
Today - 10%

19

What impact does glaciation have on desert size?

Expansionary

20

What does the IPCC predict will be the effect of climate change on precipitation?

Increase it.