How are carbohydrates organized?
by their number of carbons and functional groups
Three common names for carbohydrates
What are 3 carbon sugars? Four?
Sugars with Aldehydes and Sugars with
Ketones as their most oxidized group are named what?
Nomenclature of sugars
Nomemclature of all sugar is based on the
D- and L- forms of glyceraldehyde.
Sugars with the highest-numbered chiral carbon with the -OH group on the RIGHT (fisher projection) are D sugars/
on left, L Sugars.
D & L = Enantiomeres
Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. It is the simplest of all common aldoses. It is a sweet, colourless crystalline solid that is an intermediate compound in carbohydrate metabolism.
What are diastereomers
Non-superimposable configurations of molecules with similar connectivity. They differ at at least one - but - not all chiral carbons. These include
Epimers; differ at one chiral carbon
Anomers; differ at the anomeric carbon
Cyclization describes the ring formation of carbohydrates, when these form, the anomeric carbon can take either an alpha or beta conformation.
The anomeric carbon is the new chiral center formed in the ring closure,
it was the carbon containing the carbonyl.
Alpha-anomers have the -OH on the anomeric
carbon ______ to the free -CH2OH group.
Hawthorn Projections provide?
Provide a good way to represent 3D structures
Cyclic compounds can undergo MUTAROTATION, which is what?
Shifting from one anomeric for to another with the straight chain form as an intermediate.
What are Monosaccharides?
What 3 main reactions can they undergo?
single carbohydrate units, with glucose as the most commonly observed monomer.
They can undergo 3 main reactions.
- glycoside formation
Aldoses can be oxidized and reduced to produce what?
Oxidized; Aldonic Acids
What kind of sugars can be reacted with Tollen' or Benedict's reagents to detect those sugars?
Sugars that can oxidized are reducing agents (reducing sugars)
Sugars with an -H replacing an -OH are termed?
Sugars that react with carboxylic acids and their derivatives form what?
ESTERS in an esterification reaction
What is phosphorylation?
Phosphate ester is formed by transfering a phospahete group from ATP onto a sugar
is the basis for building complex carbohydrates and requires the anomeric carbon to link to another sugar
What are dissacharides?
form as a result of glycosidic bonding berween two monosacharide subunits;
polyssacharides form by reapeated monossacharide or polyssacharide glycosidic bonding
What are the 3 common disaccharides?
1. Sucrose glucose-alpha-1,2-fructose
2. Lactose galactose-beta-1,4-glucose
3. Maltose glucose-alpha-1,4-glucose
What 3 main roles do polysaccharides play?
the main source of fiber in the human diet found in plants cell walls for a structural component
Starches (amylose and amylopectin);
main energy storage form for plants
main energy storage form for animals