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Flashcards in L14 Deck (28):
1

what is the latin name for giant kelp forests

macrocystis

2

what are giant kelp forests

brown macroalgae

3

how do kelp forests obtain nutrients

absorption through their fronds

4

how long can kelp forests grow

Can grow up to half a meter a day primary productivity 500-1500 g C m2 per year

5

Kelp forest
what are the two distinct stages

vegetative asexual growth
spore releasing sexual growth

6

kelp forests
what conditions are needed to ensure growth

30-40 m below sea surface – where clear enough that light can penetrate
Water needs to be cooler than 20 °C with high nutrient concentrations, mid-high latitudes with upwelling

7

what is the main consumer of kelp

sea urchins

8

how is kelp eaten by other consumers

Surprising few animals eat the kelp itself, but it is easily torn apart particularly the ends where new growth occurs. The Kelp releases large amount of detritus this way, which is then modified by decomposers and then consumed by animals.

9

what preys on sea urchins

otters

10

what happens if there are lots of otters

they eat all the urchins so the kelp forests thrive

11

what happens if there is not a lot of otters

there are more urchins and not a lot of kelp

12

kelp forests
what happened in california

California coast was once almost entirely fringed by kelp forests
Human related impacts – hunting of sea otters early 20th C nearly drove them to extinction. There was no population control on sea urchins and kelp forests were largely wiped out on extensive stretches of coast.
 

13

what are mangrove forests

large woody trees with a dense complex root system

14

mangroves are the dominant plant of ....

tropical and subtropical intertidal areas

15

why are mangroves so important

they support an abundant + diverse fauna

16

what was the marine mamel act of 1970

Marine Mammal Act 1970’s great help for Manatees numbers were reduced due to; pollution and development of habitats; eating metal and plastic wastes; collisions with motor boats in the shallow water, one population in Florida has grown from 60 to 300 individuals since 1975.

17

when was the marine mamel act passed

1970

18

what affects the distribution of mangrove forests

3. Distribution of the trees is largely controlled by air temperature, exposure to wave and current attack, tidal range, substrate type, and seawater chemistry.

19

how is the detritus from the mangrove important

it forms the base of the food chain

20

where do manatee live and how are they at danger

5. Manatees inhabit the tidal creeks of mangrove forests and are in danger from coastal development, pollution, and boat traffic.

21

what are the threats to mangrove forests

hurricanes and deforestation

22

how much of indonesias mangrove forest has lost

40%

23

how much emissions has the loss of mangrove lead to

0.07-0.21 Pg CO

24

how much carbon is reported to have been stored in the indio-pacific region

1023 MgC ha^-1

25

if deforestation of mangrove forrests in india were stopped what would be the total emission reduction in relation to land use sector at present

10-31%

26

which book have all the mangrove indonesia facts come from

Murdivarso et al 2015 Nature Climate Change

27

pendleton 2012
globally what is the estimation of co2 released from ecosystems

150 million to 1.02 billion tons of co2 a year

28

pendleton 2012
the higher estimate is equal to what other countries % of emission s

Japan 53%