Flashcards in L15/16 Lab Deck (23):
What is a common element that many models of group development try to explain?
why it takes time for a group to become productive
What are the 3 categories that models of group development fall under?
- those which seek to explain the stages of development of group processes
(e.g. Tuckman 5 stage 'orming' model)
- those based on the project functions being carried out by the team
- those which see group development occurring in repeated cycles rather than stages
What are two well known cyclical models?
- Bales' equilibrium model
- Schutz's FIRO-B model
Bales' equilibrium model views groups as:
balancing the needs for task completion with relationship development. Groups oscillate between these two concerns depending on the needs of the members.
Schutz's FIRO-B model argues that:
the predominant focus of group interaction begins with inclusion, and is folled by issues of control and then affection.
This cycle may be repeated. The phases are not distinct, they reflect an emphasis of interaction
Stage models of team development are based on:
These models are typically 4 or 5 stage models
Compare Tuckman and Jensen's 5-stage 'orming' model with Susan Wheelan's model:
forming ---- dependency and inclusion
storming ---- counter-dependency and fight
norming ---- trust and structure
performing ---- work
adjourning ---- termination
Characteristics of a 'Forming' group
1. concern for acceptance and inclusion, fear rejection
2. communication is tentative
3. members look for directive leadership
4. goals are not clear, but clarity is not sought
5. compliance is high, conflict is low
Characteristics of a 'Storming' group
1. Increased member participation
2. dissent over goals, roles and tasks
3. leader challenged as status relationships form
4. clarification of goals and roles
5. decreased conformity
6. conflict management bring group together
Characteristics of a 'Norming' group
1. increased goal clarity and consensus
2. roles adjusted to achieve goals
3. leader becomes more consultative
4. cohesion and trust increase
5. conflict management more effective
6. individual commitment to task is high
7. pressure to conform increases
Characteristics of a 'Performing' group
1. clear about goals and roles. Leadership is delegated or shared
2. Open communication and good feedback
3. Voluntary conformity is high, norm encourages high performance. The group expects success.
4. highly cohesive and interpersonal attraction is high. Conflict is frequent but brief
5. High productive, and balance of task and socio-emotional behaviour
Characteristics of an 'Adjourning' group
1. Work activity levels begin to vary significantly
2. Problematic issues may be ignored
3. mixed feelings in the group
4. members may discuss continuing the group beyond its designated end
5. the group's ability to manage conflict diminishes
Leadership through the forming stage:
- confident and directive team leader
- reduce members' fears and anxieties
- facilitate discussion of team goals
- manage external environment
Leadership through the storming stage:
- empower other members as they participate more
- don't take challenges personally
- show good conflict management
Leadership through the norming stage:
- involve members in the leadership of the group
- clarify roles, share responsibility evenly, praise efforts, improve process (e.g. meetings, problem solving, decision making)
Leadership through the performing stage:
- participate as an expert member of the team
- encourage trust and openness
- maintain focus on the task
- review performance
What do we want to accomplish in group development?
- member satisfaction
- team learning
- outsider satisfaction
How can we organise groups to meet goals
- creating a work structure
- specify roles
Creating a work structure requires:
Moving from goals to work that needs to be done to achieve those goals.
Once the work has been identifies, the team decides how it will organise itself to do the work.
Using norms to organise groups requires:
- expectations of acceptable behaviour
- unwritten rules enforce by team members
What are types of norms that cause the most disruption to team behaviour?
Meeting , working , communication , leadership, and consideration norms.
What are the main uses of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality test?
- organisational development
- career counselling
- counselling and psychotherapy