Lecture 5: Project Dynamics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5: Project Dynamics Deck (20):
1

What are the present problems with project management literature?

- inadequate project management
- bad estimation of costs
- change of scope
- inadequate communication with environmnet
- environmental factors
- inadequate information
- inadequate organisation
- coordination problems
- contractual problems
- incompetent people

2

What are the failure factors of current projects?

- Anglo saxon culture ( uncertain certainties)
- Fixed output and input at the start of a project
- Negation of complexity
- Misconception about parties working together on a common goal
- Tailor made unique buildings

3

What are the characteristics of the Anglo Saxon culture?

- believe in a utopic (idealistic) and fully achievable world
- dogmatic approach of observed phenomenae
- actions based on uncertain certainties based on inductive methods
- reduction and decomposition
- actions are initiated on mechanistic cause/ consequence reasoning, which is mainly treated in a high rate of mathematical quantification
- order- oriented: the output is translated in tactical and operational tasks, which have to be achieved precisely.
- hierarchical management organisation
- rule based: extrinsic motivation with employees
- centralisation of power and responsibilites
- punctual planning and control cycle
- emphasis on control of processes
- emphasis on standardisation and uniformity
- recruitement employees mainly based on competence to pass on commands to lower organisational units

4

What are the characteristics of Rhinelander's culture?

- live in existing world
- axiomatic (taken for granted) approach of observed phenomenae based on deductive methods
- actions based on certain uncertainties
- integration and clustering
- actions are based on observations of the behaviour of complex systems in its environments
- mission oriented: the outcome is more important than the output
- broad overall plan without details, provided with a simple command and communication structure
- flat organisational structure with semi autonomously operating units
- principle based: intrinsic motivation with employees
- decentralisation of power and responsibilites
- only basis premises with respect to why (mission), what (vision), and how (strategy)
- emphasis on control of products
- emphasis on tailor made differentiation and variety
- recruitment employees mainly basesd on knowledge and skills

5

What are the 3 factors of triple constraint?

- time
- costs
- performance

6

Productivity =

Productivity = effectiveness x effeciency

7

How is project effectiveness found?

Effectiveness found by comparison of normative performance and actual performance.

8

How is project efficiency found?

Efficiency found by comparison of normative efforts and actual efforts.

9

What are the consequences of perception 1?

- subjective instead of objective (bound to persons)
- relative instead of absolute (bound to models)
- partial instead of total (bound to goals)

10

What are the consequences of perception 2?

- over estimation of output (performance) at the start of a project
- underestimation of input (time and costs) at the start of a project

11

What are 3 causes of negation of complexity?

- hierarchical barriers
- functional barriers
- operative islands

12

What are misconceptions of working together with all involved parties?

- Stakeholders: interested in value of ouput (and value for money)
- Client: interested in cost-effectiveness (output for price)
- Contractor: interested in cost-efficiency (price/profit/risk/cost)

13

Explain how each project is unique.

- client
- stakeholders
- location
- soil conditions
- groundwater conditions
- climatological conditions
- regulations
- markets
- economics
- finance

14

What are common aims of projects?

- finding a solution for a problem
- developing a system in its environment
- creating a form in a context
- delivering maximum output using minimum input

15

What are the principles of project dynamics?

- certain uncertainties

Consider a project as:
- a part of asset management of porfolios or networks
- a set of parties with conflicting interests and a set of variables
- a problem solving process with unpredictable outcome
- an artificially accelerated evolution process
- a circular process (reused of components and knowledge)

16

What are the 3 main components of the dynamic control model?

- environment
- controller
- controlled system

The controlled system influences the environment and the environment influences the controlled system through desired behaviour

17

What are the conditions for effective control?

- goal
- model of system in its environment
- information
- control variety

18

What are the goals of dynamic control?

- fixed relations between the economical variables of a project can bring about benefit sharing between the main parties of a project
- benefit sharing is the main step towards a common goal: strive for as maximum total benefit as possible
- variables should be real variables (don't fix the variables)

19

Whats the difference between static and dynamic project management?

- Static PM has fixed variables and loose relations
- Dynamic PM has loose variables and fixed relations

20

Explain complexity of a system.

- is a set of all relations between all elements
- the structure of a system
- can not be decomposed