L19 - Psychoneuroimmunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L19 - Psychoneuroimmunology Deck (13)
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1

WHAT IS PNI?

i) what did classic early studies find was decreased in response to stress?

ii) what other system can PNI be linked to?

 

i) early studies found decreased phagocytic activity and decreased response to stress

ii) PNI can be linked to the endocrine system

2

STRESS AND IMMUNITY

i) which two systems/axis are activated when threatened?

ii) how does each of these effect immune function

iii) what does brief stress induce? what happens when the stress is removed?

iv) why can prolonged stress be harmful?

i) symp NS and HPA axis 

ii) SNS > increases some immune activity eg NK cells
HPA suppresses some immune activity via cortisol

iii) brief stress produces beneficial acute imm response 
eg immediate defence from injuries 
- rapid return to baseline when stress is removed

iv) prolonged stress can be harmful because it distrupts psychological and physiol functioning 

3

GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME

i) which three phases does it consist of?

ii) what happens at each stage?

i) alarm, resistance and exhaustion

ii) alarm > body is mobilised against the stressor
resistance > arousal stays high as body defends/adapts
exhaustion > resources are depleted and resistance may collapse 

4

WHY IS PROLONGED STRESS HARMFUL?

i) what is allostatic load?

ii) what is the definition of allostasis?

iii) what happens to allostatic load when stress is prolonged?

iv) name two measures of allostatic load

i) allostatic load is the physiological cost of prolonged fluctuation or elevated SNS/HPA response

ii) allostasis = the body actively copes with stress trying to find a new balance 

iii) in prolonged stress the AL accumulates

iv) measures of AL > decreased cell mediated immunity and inability to shut off cortisol response to stress 

5

WHAT IS STRESS?

i) what is it? which four effects does it try and accomodate?

ii) what is it a response to? 

iii) which model looks at appraisal of stressors? 

iv) label diagram 

i) negative experience accompanies by predictable changes aimed at altering stressful event or accom changes
- tries to accom biochem, physiol, cognitive and behavioural

ii) response to a stressor

iii) transactional model looks at appraisal of stressors

iv) A = primary appraisal, B = secondary appraisal, C = stress

6

REACTIVITY TO STRESS

i) what does reactivity refer to?

ii) what is higher physiological reactivity related to in situations of prolonged stress?

iii) what can reactivity depend on?

i) refers to magnitude of SNS and HPA response to stress

ii) higher physiol ractivity is related to worse health outcomes in repsonse to prolonged stress 

iii) reactivity can depend on nature of the stressor or stress 

7

COPING 

i) name two things that coping may entail?

ii) are all coping responses directed towards solving a problem?

iii) what are the two major modes of coping? what is each aimed at (2) 

i) coping may entail actions people take to reduce stress and processes to manage percieved disrecpancies between demands of situation and percieved resources

ii) not all coping responses are directed toward problem solving 

iii) two modes
- emotion focused > aimed at improving emotional state aimed at behavioural and cognitive
- problem focused > aimed at reducing demands of situation and or increases resources to deal with stressful situation 

8

RESPONSE TO STRESS

i) name three things that expressive writing/emotional disclosure can enhance

ii) what does relaxation/self hypnosis and guided imagery reduce?

iii) what does problem solving and stress management reduce?

iv) what can physical activity enhance? what can it reduce?

i) writing > enhance mood, immune function and health

ii) relax/self hypnosis > reeduce effect of stress on imm sys

iii) problem solving and stress m can also reduce effect of stress on imm sys

iv) physical acitivity can enhance mood and reduce effect of stress on cortisol 

9

SOCIAL SUPPORT

i) what part of the transactional model evaluates this?

ii) which systems have studies shown that social support has a beneficial effect on? (3)

iii) how has lonliness and lack of social networks been seen to impact antibody reponse after flu vaccination?

i) secondary appraisal of resources evaluates social support

ii) social support can be beneficial to stress related response in immune, neuroendocrine and CV systems 

iii) lonliness and lack of social network > low antibody response to flu vaccination 

10

PATHWAYS OF INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT 

i) how are direct effects mediated? 

ii) how are indirect effects mediated? 

iii) what two things are people who are given social support likely to do? is this a direct or indirect effect?

i) direct effects mediated via psychosocial influences on endocrine and immune function

ii) indirect effect - people who provide social support can encourage better coping

iii) better social support > more likely to adhere to medication and use health services 

11

DEPRESSION AND IMMUNITY

i) name three emotions that can impair immune function

ii) name three things people with depression may have in relation to immunity

iii) which two cell types and two mediators may be altered in depression?

iv) is a dose response effect seen? explain 

i) lonliness, pessimism and depression can impair imm func

ii) depression > greater suscep to infecions, slower wound healing and altered immune function 

iii) reduced number and func of leucocytes and NK cells
- changes in pro inflam cytokines and increase in IL-6

iv) dose response effect is seen - more severe or prolonged depression has worse immune effects 

12

DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF DEPRESSION

i) name two diseases that depression has been linked to a more rapid progression of 

ii) what is a direct effect of depression? name three indirect effects 

iii) what type of interventions can also affect immune disorders? 

i) cancer and HIV

ii) direct effect > effect on immune function
indirect > poor sleep, unhealthy behaviour, lower adherence

iii) psychological interventions can also affect course of immune disorders 

13

POSITIVE MOOD AND IMMUNITY

i) what can positive moods and personalities be related to?

ii) name three aspects of personality that are hard to modify

iii) name one thing that is modifiable and what it can lead to

iv) do positive or negative events have longer lasting effects on immune function? which emotions have been studied more?

i) positive mood/personality can be related to enhanced immune function

ii) hard to modify - optimism, emotional expressiveness and extraversion

iii) laughter is modifiable
- watching comedy videos can enhance immune function 

iv) positive events have longer lasting effects on immune func than negative events
- more studies on neg events so less robust evidence