WHAT IS PNI?
i) what did classic early studies find was decreased in response to stress?
ii) what other system can PNI be linked to?
i) early studies found decreased phagocytic activity and decreased response to stress
ii) PNI can be linked to the endocrine system
STRESS AND IMMUNITY
i) which two systems/axis are activated when threatened?
ii) how does each of these effect immune function
iii) what does brief stress induce? what happens when the stress is removed?
iv) why can prolonged stress be harmful?
i) symp NS and HPA axis
ii) SNS > increases some immune activity eg NK cells
HPA suppresses some immune activity via cortisol
iii) brief stress produces beneficial acute imm response
eg immediate defence from injuries
- rapid return to baseline when stress is removed
iv) prolonged stress can be harmful because it distrupts psychological and physiol functioning
GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
i) which three phases does it consist of?
ii) what happens at each stage?
i) alarm, resistance and exhaustion
ii) alarm > body is mobilised against the stressor
resistance > arousal stays high as body defends/adapts
exhaustion > resources are depleted and resistance may collapse
WHY IS PROLONGED STRESS HARMFUL?
i) what is allostatic load?
ii) what is the definition of allostasis?
iii) what happens to allostatic load when stress is prolonged?
iv) name two measures of allostatic load
i) allostatic load is the physiological cost of prolonged fluctuation or elevated SNS/HPA response
ii) allostasis = the body actively copes with stress trying to find a new balance
iii) in prolonged stress the AL accumulates
iv) measures of AL > decreased cell mediated immunity and inability to shut off cortisol response to stress
WHAT IS STRESS?
i) what is it? which four effects does it try and accomodate?
ii) what is it a response to?
iii) which model looks at appraisal of stressors?
iv) label diagram
i) negative experience accompanies by predictable changes aimed at altering stressful event or accom changes
- tries to accom biochem, physiol, cognitive and behavioural
ii) response to a stressor
iii) transactional model looks at appraisal of stressors
iv) A = primary appraisal, B = secondary appraisal, C = stress
REACTIVITY TO STRESS
i) what does reactivity refer to?
ii) what is higher physiological reactivity related to in situations of prolonged stress?
iii) what can reactivity depend on?
i) refers to magnitude of SNS and HPA response to stress
ii) higher physiol ractivity is related to worse health outcomes in repsonse to prolonged stress
iii) reactivity can depend on nature of the stressor or stress
i) name two things that coping may entail?
ii) are all coping responses directed towards solving a problem?
iii) what are the two major modes of coping? what is each aimed at (2)
i) coping may entail actions people take to reduce stress and processes to manage percieved disrecpancies between demands of situation and percieved resources
ii) not all coping responses are directed toward problem solving
iii) two modes
- emotion focused > aimed at improving emotional state aimed at behavioural and cognitive
- problem focused > aimed at reducing demands of situation and or increases resources to deal with stressful situation
RESPONSE TO STRESS
i) name three things that expressive writing/emotional disclosure can enhance
ii) what does relaxation/self hypnosis and guided imagery reduce?
iii) what does problem solving and stress management reduce?
iv) what can physical activity enhance? what can it reduce?
i) writing > enhance mood, immune function and health
ii) relax/self hypnosis > reeduce effect of stress on imm sys
iii) problem solving and stress m can also reduce effect of stress on imm sys
iv) physical acitivity can enhance mood and reduce effect of stress on cortisol
i) what part of the transactional model evaluates this?
ii) which systems have studies shown that social support has a beneficial effect on? (3)
iii) how has lonliness and lack of social networks been seen to impact antibody reponse after flu vaccination?
i) secondary appraisal of resources evaluates social support
ii) social support can be beneficial to stress related response in immune, neuroendocrine and CV systems
iii) lonliness and lack of social network > low antibody response to flu vaccination
PATHWAYS OF INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT
i) how are direct effects mediated?
ii) how are indirect effects mediated?
iii) what two things are people who are given social support likely to do? is this a direct or indirect effect?
i) direct effects mediated via psychosocial influences on endocrine and immune function
ii) indirect effect - people who provide social support can encourage better coping
iii) better social support > more likely to adhere to medication and use health services
DEPRESSION AND IMMUNITY
i) name three emotions that can impair immune function
ii) name three things people with depression may have in relation to immunity
iii) which two cell types and two mediators may be altered in depression?
iv) is a dose response effect seen? explain
i) lonliness, pessimism and depression can impair imm func
ii) depression > greater suscep to infecions, slower wound healing and altered immune function
iii) reduced number and func of leucocytes and NK cells
- changes in pro inflam cytokines and increase in IL-6
iv) dose response effect is seen - more severe or prolonged depression has worse immune effects
DOSE RESPONSE EFFECT OF DEPRESSION
i) name two diseases that depression has been linked to a more rapid progression of
ii) what is a direct effect of depression? name three indirect effects
iii) what type of interventions can also affect immune disorders?
i) cancer and HIV
ii) direct effect > effect on immune function
indirect > poor sleep, unhealthy behaviour, lower adherence
iii) psychological interventions can also affect course of immune disorders
POSITIVE MOOD AND IMMUNITY
i) what can positive moods and personalities be related to?
ii) name three aspects of personality that are hard to modify
iii) name one thing that is modifiable and what it can lead to
iv) do positive or negative events have longer lasting effects on immune function? which emotions have been studied more?
i) positive mood/personality can be related to enhanced immune function
ii) hard to modify - optimism, emotional expressiveness and extraversion
iii) laughter is modifiable
- watching comedy videos can enhance immune function
iv) positive events have longer lasting effects on immune func than negative events
- more studies on neg events so less robust evidence