See page 1-2 diagrams
Poultry have local immunity in the head, respiratory tract, repro tract, and digestive tract. They also have cell-mediated and humoral immunity.
3 main goals of vaccination
Resistance to infection
Reduction of shedding
Factors that affect poultry response to vaccination
- Parental immunity
Should always “prime” with live-virus vaccines and “boost” with inactivated-virus vaccine 2-3 weeks before onset of production***
Newcastle dz - Infectious Bronchitis (ND-IB) combined vaccine protects for how long?
When should you vaccinate for LT?
Only if hx of disease. Vaccine can halt outbreak
When should you test for AE immunity?
Should FP vaccinated baby chicks be revaccinated?
When should sick birds be vaccinated?
Only if they have FP or LT
Types of vax used by poultry industry
In water Spray Eye drop Wing web Parenteral (IM or SC) In ovo (at 18 days of embryonation in amniotic cavity)
Which vaccine can be “zoonotic”?
Live NCD vaccine can cause conjunctivitis in humans if eye is accidentally infected; may cause anaphylactic (type I hypersensitivity) rxn
Tips for vax via drinking water
- use COLD, contaminant-free water
- don’t vax sick birds
- hold water 1-2 hours before vaccination
- very economical; mass vaccination without stress
- add skim milk powder to the water
Tips for spray vaccination of poultry
- particle size must not be too small or will go into low resp. Tract
- handle live vax rapidly (inactivated by heat)
Tips for wing-web vax
- only use for potentially aggressive vaccines (avian encephalomyelitis, avian pox, fowl cholera)
- must not be introduced into bone, muscle, or blood
Administration of inactivated vaccines and bacterins
IM or SC
- requires individual bird handling
- best for birds primed with live vaccines
- can cause swelling at injection site in humans
Which diseases does maternal immunity give STRONG protection against?
Gumboro disease (IBD)
Which diseases does maternal immunity give POOR protection against?
Which diseases does maternal immunity give NO protection against?
Fowl Pox vaccination guidelines (for broilers)
- use when FPV challenge is high (heavily infested with blood sucking insects)
- only need one vaccine in adult birds
- if also vax for Marek’s dz simultaneously, may result in poor Marek’s immunity. Should use FP vaccination for day old chicks in this case.
ILT vax guidelines (for layer/breeders)
- 2 vaccines usually needed (1st in eye or water at 10 days, then again at least 4 wks before onset of egg production)
- can vaccinate during clinical outbreak**
- eye vax preferred
Precautions when vaccinating against ILT
- ILT vax in spray or drinking water may cause postvaccination rxns
- don’t vaccinate birds infected with mycoplasma or other resp. Agent
- hold other live virus vaccination for 10 days
- can cause latency and shed (usually regulated)*
Multivalent vector vaccine inserts 2 pathogen antigens into one vector
Today, IBD, ND, and MD are all protected for in one hatchery administration of vaccine!