L22- Behaviour of Tumours Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L22- Behaviour of Tumours Deck (20):
1

Malignant Tumours : What is invasion of a tumour?

Invades adjacent normal tissue

Destroys normal tissue

2

Malignant Tumours: What is Metastasis of a tumour?

Spreads from site of origin to distant sites and forms new tumours in these new areas

3

What occurs as a result of invasion?

Increased motility

Decreased adhesion

Production of proteolytic enzymes

4

Epithelial cells vs Mesenchymal cells in tumours

There is a Epithelial – Mesenchymal Transition when it becomes malignant

Epithelial cells are tightly connected, polarised and tethered

Mesenchymal cells loosely connected, able to migrate

In cancer epithelial cells gain mesenchymal properties and can invade and migrate

5

Metastasis - Routes : Lymphatic

Distant or local lymph nodes

6

Metastasis - Routes: Blood

Liver, lungs, bone, brain etc

7

Metastasis - Routes: Transcoelomic

Across peritoneal, pleural, pericardial cavities or in CSF

8

Metastasis - Routes: Implantation

Spillage of tumour during biopsy/surgery

9

What are the stages of Metastasis?

1) Detachment invasion

2) Intravasation

3) Survival Against Host defences

4) Adherence Extravasation

5) Growth

10

Stages of Metastasis: What is Intravasation

the invasion of cancer cells through the basal membrane into a blood or lymphatic vessel

11

What is the pattern of Metastasis spread between Carcinomas and Sarcomas?

Carcinomas - Lymphatic spread first

Sarcomas - Blood spread first

12

Where do Transcoelomic Tumours tend to metastasise to?

Ovaries

13

Where do Brain and adrenal Tumours tend to metastasise to?

Lungs

14

Bone metastasises can be....

Lytic

or

Sclerotic

15

Why are cancers staged and graded?

Determine Prognosis – survival time, quality of life

Decide how to treat the tumour

Research – compare therapies or prognostic factors

16

What are cancer stages?

How advanced is the tumour?

Has the cancer spread and if so what is the extent of spread

Has it metastasised?

17

What are cancer Grades?

how aggressive is the tumour?

Differentiation – how much does the tumour resemble tissue it originates from

How fast is it growing?

18

What are tumours graded by?

TMN system

T= Tumour - Size +/- extent of primary tumour

M= Metastases - Presence and extent of distant metastases

N= Nodes - = Presence and number of lymph node metastases

TMN can be combined to give an overall stage for the tumour ---> 1 to 4

19

In breast cancer staging, what does Tis (Tumour stage) mean?

In situ disease

20

Name the stages of Dukes Staging for Colorectal Cancer ? (A--->D...gets worse as you go up the alphabet)

A = invades into, but not through bowel wall

B = invades through the bowel wall but with no lymph node metastases

C = Local lymph nodes involved

D = Distant metastases