L3- Sleep Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L3- Sleep Deck (36)
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1

what is sleep

Not just the absence of consciousness

2

sleep is recognised as

essential- absence results in death e.g. fatal familial insomnia

3

Lack of sleep can cause

low mood but conversely in some people hypomanic or manic like symptoms

4

sleep is a balance between

circadian rhythm and sleep pressure

5

circadian rhythm

- Natural fluctuation in body functions
- Levels of hormones, body temp etc.
- Lower in the night, lowest between 4-5am (most mistakes made)

6

sleep pressure

the pressure to go to sleep

7

what creates sleep pressure

Build up while awake of adenosine, higher levels greater sleep pressure
Breakdown when asleep
Caffeine temporarily blocks the receptors

8

sleep occurs in

90 min cycles with periods of waking

9

rapid eye movement (REM sleep)

- Associated with dreaming
- Rapid erratic neural patterns-similar to awake without sensory input
- Strengthens connections in the brain
-Alcohol suppresses REM sleep

10

stages of sleep

Non-REM (NREM) sleep (Stages 1, 2 & 3) and REM sleep.

11

stage 1 (1-10 mins)

is the lightest stage of NREM sleep. Often defined by the presence of slow eye movements, this drowsy sleep stage can be easily disrupted causing awakenings or arousals. Muscle tone throughout the body relaxes and brain wave activity begins to slow from that of wake. Occasionally people may experience myoclonic jerks or abrupt muscle spasms and may even experience sensation of falling while drifting in and out of Stage 1.

12

stage 2 (2-20 mins)

decreased heart rate, decrease temp (45%sleep)

13

stage 3

s known as deep NREM sleep. The most restorative stage of sleep, stage 3 consists of delta waves or slow waves. Awakenings or arousals are rare and often it is difficult to awaken someone in Stage 3 sleep.

14

REm stage

REM sleep, also known as rapid eye movement, is most commonly known as the dreaming stage. Eye movements are rapid, moving from side to side and brain waves are more active than in Stages 2 & 3 of sleep. Awakenings and arousals can occur more easily in REM; being woken during a REM period can leave one feeling groggy or overly sleepy.

15

more ..... earlier, more .... later

NREM

REM

16

melatonin (vampire hormone)

Regulates sleep/wake cycle also an antioxidant/possibly anti-inflammatory

17

where is melatonin produced

pineal gland

18

melatonin is regulated by

activation of B1 adrenergic receptors

19

daylight stops

noradrenergic stimulation affecting enzyme production

20

blue light

suppresses melatonin production

21

bananas

increase blood melatonin

22

sleep cycles vary with age

teenagers have later onset of melatonin

23

larks

40% early morning wakefulness

24

owls

30% wake more in evening and later

25

sleep is one of the most ....... interventions

cost effective

26

poor sleep associated with

Cardiovascular disease (less than 6 hours risk of Heart attack increased by 400%)

Diabetes

Cancer

Weight gain

Immune deficiency

Dementia

Accidents-RTAs

27

sleep deprivation increases reactivity of certain parts of the brain

emotional volatility

28

disrupted sleep can occur in

Depression
Anxiety
Bipolar Affective Disorder
Psychosis

29

sleeping after learning to consolidate information

-NREM better for knowledge tasks
- Late NREM associated with better motor skills development
- REM for creativity

30

repeat of neural patterns in sleep

double learning