L4- Diet and Body weight Flashcards

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1
Q

RNI

A

reference nutrient intake (protein, vitamins and minerals)

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2
Q

EAR

A

estimated average requirement (used for energy intake)

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3
Q

LRNI

A

lower reference nutrition intake

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4
Q

intake below LRNI

A

is insufficient for most people

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5
Q

DRVs depend on

A

age, gender and level of physical activity

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6
Q

How are nutritional requirements estimated

A

Scientific evidence reviewed and frequency of distribution for a particular group used to determine values.

  • EAR: Requirement for ~50% of group (50% will require more).
  • RNI: Enough to ensure needs of 97.5% are being met. Many within the group will need less.
  • LRNI: Enough for only the small number of people who have low requirements (2.5%). The majority need more.
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7
Q

daily energy expenditure

A

basal metabolic rate (BMR) + Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) + physical activity level (PAL)

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8
Q

daily energy expenditure of 70 kg man and 58 kg women

A

1200 kj/day

9,500 kj/day

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9
Q

what does the basal metabolic rate do

A

Maintains resting activities of the body

e. g. function of all organs
e. g. ion transport and biochemical reaction

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10
Q

where does the majority of basal metabolic rate energy go to

A

skeletal muscle (30% BMR)

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11
Q

factors affecting BMR

A
  • body size
  • gender
  • temp
  • endocrine stus
  • body temp
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12
Q

voluntary physical exercise (VPE)

A

energy required depends on intensity and duration of activity. reflects demands of:

  • skeletal msucle
  • heart muscle
  • resp muscles
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13
Q

VPE for sedentary person

A

30 kJ/Kg/day

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14
Q

VPE for every active person

A

100 kJ/Kg/day

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15
Q

where does most energy in British diet come from

A

most energy derived from CHOs

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16
Q

energy content in food compeoennts

A
highest:
- fat
- alcohol
- protein
-CHO
Lowest
17
Q

when energy intake = expenditure

A

stable body weight

18
Q

energy intake < expenditure

A

lose weight when energy stores depletes

19
Q

energy intake > expenditure

A

energy stores (fat_ will increase

20
Q

obesity is defined as

A

fat accumulation in adipose tissue which impairs health

21
Q

obesity is BMI above what

A

30

22
Q

obesity occurs when

A

energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a period of years

23
Q

obesity is associated within increased risk of

A

cancer
CVD
T2D

24
Q

BMI=

A

weight (kg)/ heigh ^2(m)

25
Q

height measured

A

without shoes

26
Q

weight measured with

A

minimal clothing

27
Q

BMI shows good

A

correlation with body fat measurments

28
Q

BMI is weak in predicting

A

body fat measurements in muscular individuals

29
Q

alternative to BMI

A

waist/ hip ratio

30
Q

greater proportion of fat in upper body e.g. abdomen associated with increased risk of

A
  • insulin resistance
  • T2D
  • High NP
  • hyperlipideamia
  • stroke
  • premature death