L4 Pulmonary and Chest Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L4 Pulmonary and Chest Assessment Deck (66)
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1

Lower lung borders

6th rib midclavicular line, 8th rib midaxillary line, T10 posteriorly

2

What is the level of the bronchi?

Sternal angle anteriorly and T4 posteriorly

3

Normal respirations

14-20 breaths/min

4

Techniques of examination for lungs

Inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation

5

Stridor

High-pitched usually inspiratory wheeze due to larynx or tracheal obstruction

6

What does stridor indicate?

Obstruction in trachea or larynx (foreign body or airway disease)

7

What is stridor called in children?

Croup (from tracheolaryngeal bronchitis)

8

Causes of tracheal deviation

Large pleural effusion, large pneumothorax, mass/tumor

9

When is accessory muscle use seen?

Respiratory distress in COPD or asthma

10

5 different chest shapes

Barrel chest, scoliosis, pectus carinatum, pectus excavatum, kyphosis

11

Pectus excavatum

Also called funnel chest, concave anterior chest (depression of distal sternum)

12

Pectus carinatum

Also called pigeon chest, convex anterior chest (anterior displacement of sternum)

13

Barrel chest

Increased A-P diameter that is seen in aging or COPD

14

Flail chest

Rib fractures that cause paradoxical movement of chest wall, usually blunt trauma that fractures 3+ ribs

15

Kyphosis

Abnormal forward curvature of the spine

16

Scoliosis

Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

17

Reasons for bradypnea

Diabetic coma, drug-induced respiratory depression

18

Reasons for tachypnea

Restrictive lung disease, elevated diaphragm, pain

19

Sighing

Periodic deeper breaths

20

Obstructive breathing

Prolonged expiration, increased airway resistance

21

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

Periods of gradually increasing and decreasing depth of respiration with periods of apnea (irregular but cyclic)

22

Possible causes of Cheyne-Stokes breathing

Heart failure, uremia, brain damage, drug-induced

23

Kussmaul breathing

Rapid and deep respirations that can be a sign of metabolic acidosis

24

Biot's breathing

Irregular, unpredictable, shallow or deep, with intermittent apnea (not cyclical), can be due to respiratory depression or brain damage

25

Crepitus (bone vs subq)

Crackling/grating feeling or sound
Bone is seen in rib movement from a fracture
Subq feels like "rice krispies" under the skin from subcutaneous emphysema

26

Causes of limited chest excursion

Unilaterally due to chronic lung/pleural fibrosis, pleural effusion, lobar pneumonia, pain/splinting

27

Subcutaneous emphysema

Trapped air from lung/chest tracks along tissue plans that can cause "swelling" of the eyelids, cheeks, lips, neck and chest

28

Reasons for decreased fremitus

Obstructed bronchus, COPD, pleural effusion, lung fibrosis, pneumothorax

29

Reasons for increased fremitus

Pneumonia or consolidation

30

Resonant percussion tone

Over air (lungs)
Intensity: loud
Pitch: low
Duration: long