L6: Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders, PTSD Flashcards Preview

Abnormal Psychology > L6: Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders, PTSD > Flashcards

Flashcards in L6: Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders, PTSD Deck (15):
1

Which five Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders are listed in the DSM-5?

- PTSD
- Adjustment Disorders
- Acute Stress Disorder
- Reactive Attachment Disorder
- Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder

2

What are the 5 criteria required for a diagnosis of PTSD in the DSM-5

A. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violence in one or more of the following ways (see following slide)

B. Intrusion Symptoms (1 or more needed) - memories, dreams, flashbacks of the event.

C. Persistent avoidance of stimuli (1+) - memories, etc., or external reminders of the event.

D. Negative changes in cognition, mood (2+) - fear, negative beliefs about self, others, the world.

E. Changes in arousal, reactivity (2+)

F. Duration of symptoms is 1 month or more.

G. Clinically significant distress or impairment.

3

What are the four ways in which the actual or threatened death, sexual violence or serious injury can be experienced?

- Directly experiencing the traumatic event/s.

- Witnessing, in person, the event as it occurred to others.

- Learning that the traumatic event occurred to a close family member or close friend. In the case of the actual or threatened death of a family or friend, the actual or threatened death must have been violent or accidental.

- Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic events, e.g. first responders collecting human remains, police repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse.

4

What are the five kinds of intrusion symptoms (1+ needed)?

- Recurrent, involuntary, intrusive, distressing memories.

- Recurrent, distressing dreams related to the event/s.

- Disocciative reactions (e.g. flashbacks), the individual feels or acts as though the traumatic event was reccuring.

- Intense or prolonged psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that are reminders of the traumatic event/s.

- Marked physiological reactions to internal or external cues that are reminders of the traumatic event/s.

5

Describe the two avoidance symptoms (1+ needed).

- Avoidance of, or efforts to avoid, distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings, about or closely related with the traumatic events.

- Avoidance of or efforts to avoid external reminders (people, places, objects, activities, conversations, situations) that arouse distressing thoughts, feelings, or memories about or closely related with the traumatic events.

6

Describe the 7 possible negative alternations in cognition or mood (2+ needed).

- Inability to remember an important aspect of the event(s) (due to dissociative amnesia, not to other factors such as injury, alcohol).
- Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world (e.g., “I am bad,” “No one can be trusted”).
- Persistent, distorted cognitions about the causes/consequences of the event(s) that lead the individual to blame him/herself or others.
- Persistent negative emotions (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, shame).
- Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities.
- Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
- Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., inability to experience happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings).

7

What are the 6 alterations in arousal and reactivity (2+ needed)?

- Irritable behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation) typically expressed as verbal or physical aggression toward people or objects.
- Reckless or self-destructive behavior.
- Hypervigilance.
- Exaggerated startle response.
- Problems with concentration.
- Sleep disturbance (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless sleep).

8

Describe the features of Acute Stress Disorder and how it relates to PTSD.

- Occurs within 3 days to 4 weeks of traumatic event
- Posttraumatic reaction lasting up to 4 weeks
◦i.e., symptoms resolve within 4 weeks.
◦if they don’t: change diagnosis to PTSD

- More emphasis on dissociative symptoms
◦depersonalisation,
◦derealisation,
◦numbing,
◦reduced awareness,
◦dissociative amnesia

9

What percentage of people experience a traumatic event in their lives (as defined in PTSD criteria)?

- 60%

10

What is the 12 month prevalence of PTSD?

1-4%

11

What percentage of men and women develop PTSD following trauma exposure?

- 10-20% of women, 6-8% of men

12

In what percentage of people does distress in response to a traumatic event drop substantially within 3 months?

75%

13

What are 5 pre-trauma risk factors for PTSD?

- childhood trauma
- prior psychiatric history
- family instability
- substance abuse
- social/economic disadvantage

14

What are 5 trauma risk factors for PTSD?

- Degree of life threat (injury/death) or
- Severity of exposure to traumatic elements
- Location of trauma (safe place vs. elsewhere)
- individual's role in the trauma (helper/victim)
- meaning assigned to event (uncontrollability)

15

What are three post-trauma risk factors for PTSD?

- coping style
-social support
- ongoing stressors