L85- Calcium and PTH Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L85- Calcium and PTH Deck (50):

How is serum ionized and total calcium influenced by Albumin and pH? Describe the trends

Albumin - binds Ca and is part of total Calcium measured

- low albumin state lowers the Total but not the ionized calcium

pH changes are like so:

- Alkaloses lowers ionized Ca  and increases protein-bound calcium vs Acidosis rasises Ionized Calcium and lowers protein-bound calcium


CC: Hyperventilation causes respiratory alkalosis and reduces ionized calcium giving people the tingling sensation! 


How do you measure ionized calcium? How do you estimate ionized calcium from total calcium? 

Measuring ionized calcium is hard....samples taken careully and directly to freezer - finicky test and sucks to do.....SO INSTEAD....

Estimate Ionized Ca from Total Calcium and Albumin concentration!

CORRECTION FACTOR = (4-Albumin) x 0.8

Add correction factor to Total Calcium to get corrected calcium 

*Corrected for low albumin


What are the most important organs and hormones in calcium regulation? 

Organs - intestines, bones, kidneys


Hormones - PTH and Calcitriol


What is the relationship between PTH secretion and Calcium levels? What regulates this? Describe the relationship graphically.

Calcium sensing receptors on the Parathyroid cells act as the Calciostat and sense Ca in serum and either raise or lower PTH levels accordingly


More Calcium then PTH down

Less Calcium PTH up 

(see graph picture) 


Walk through the process of Vitamin D production and regulation.

1) 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin + UBV sunlight --> Vitamin D3

2) Vitamin D3 to the liver --> 25-OHD3

3) 25-OHD3 to the kidney --> 1,25OH-D3 aka Calcitriol which is the active form

Vitamin D2 from exogenous plant sources undergoes same 25 and 1-hydroxylation as D3


- 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin decreases w/ age so need more sun and Melanin absorbs UVB more so darker pigments need more sunlight 

- 25-OD D is what you measure to Dx Vitamin D deficiency

- 1-Hydroxylation in kdiney regulated and INCREASED by PTH but that ability decreases w/ age and renal insufficiency




How does PTH act on it's target organs? 


- Acute exposure stimulates bone formation by osteoblasts BUT prolonged exposure stimulates bone breakdown by osteoclasts (*can use synthetic PTH for osteoporosis) 

GI Tract: no direct effect


- PTH promotes Ca absorption and P excretion in the proximal tubule

- stimulates 1-hydroxylase production 


What is the difference in renal effects from PTH vs 1,25D? 

PTH tells kidney to lose P and hold onto Ca

1,25 D tells kidney to hold onto BOTH Ca and P!!! 


What is the mechanism of different actions of PTH on bone cells? (RANK-RANKL expression pathway) 

PTH binds receptors on OB acutely to stimulate them --> bone formation AND expression of RANKL cell surface receptors


then OC Precursors w/ RANK on their surface bind w/ RANKL and causes them to differentiate and activate into mature OC and get bone destruction


Vitamin D 1,25 actions on Target Organs? 


- stimulates bone breakdown at high levels and maintains serum Ca and P for bone formation


Ca and P absorption increased

PTH Glands:

- inhibits PTH release - feedback control! 


What is Calcitonin? Actions? Where does it come from? 

Calcitonin releaased and made by Thyroid C Cells

does NOT play a role in NORMAL physiology

pharmacologic doses inhibit bone resporption 


What is PTHrP? What is the physiologic role and pathologic role? 

Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptide (aa2-13) bids to the same receptor as PTH 

Physiologic Role: 

Made in Fetal parathyroid, cartilage, keratinocytes, placenta and in adult breast

Used for mobilization of Ca in pregnancy to make baby bones and for lactation

Pathologic Role: 

causes Hypercalcemia in Solid tumors!!!!!!



Where is phosphorous found? REgulated by? Too much causes? relation to 1,25 D? 

Phosphorous is a major component of Hydroxyapatite and cell membranes and ATP etc 

Too much phosphorous can cause Vascular Calcification and therefore is tightly controlled 


PTH and FGF23 (made by Osteocytes) stimulated by increased P and leads to Phosphaturia 

*PTH stimulates 125D and FGF23 inhibits it!


What is the most common cause of Outpatient Hypercalcemia?

Primary Hyperparathyroidism


What are the causes of Primary Hyperparathyroidism?

85% Single adenoma

10% hyperplasia - sporadic or MEN1/2, or hereditary jaw tumor hyperparathyroidism sundrome

5% Ectopic - neck/mediastinum

1% cancer


Signs and Symptoms of Hyperparathyroidism? 

Range from none to life-threatening depending on Degree of elevation of Ionized CA (>12 mg/dl; normal 8.5-10.5)

Bones - osteoporosis and fracture and pain

Stones - polyuria, azotemia, stones

Moans - NM weakness, fatigue and joint pain

Groans - GI constipation, anorexia, vomiting

Psychological Overtones - CNS - depression to obtundation

Other - eye Band Keratopathy

NARROW QT --> how people die from cancer from high PTrP


What causes Autosomal Dominant Primary Hyperparathyroidism? What are the different types/forms of disease (MEN)? Which one causes Hypercalcemia? 

Multiple Endocrine Neuromas!!!

MEN1: Parathyroid, Pituitary, Pancreas

- Increased Calcium!!!!!!

-Menin gene inactivation (tumor suppressor)

MEN2a: C Cells, Adrenal, Parathyroid

- Thyroid tumor

-ret gene activation (proto-oncogene)

MEN2b: C cells, Adrenal, Nerves, Parathyroid

- Thyroid tumor

- Ret gene activation 



What are markers / how do you diagnose Primary Hyperparathyroidism? What else can also be associated with this? 

Elevated Serum Ca

Elevated or inappropriately normal iPTH (should be suppressed)

Elevated or normal Urine Calcium (not low) 



- elevated Calcitriol

-low normal/low serum phosphorous

-Mild hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis 


How do you treat Primary Hyperparathyroidism? Surgical or Medical?

Asymptomatic - observation

Symptomatic = Surgery w/ Sestamibi scan 

if US+ - minimally invasive

if US- then 4 gland exploration


If poor surgical candidate treat medically w/ Cinacalcet which is Calcium Sensing Receptor Antagonist and tells Parathyroid gland to not release PTH


What is Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia? 

AD mutation that's rare

Inactivating mutation on the Calcium sensing receptor so always thinks not enough Ca/PTH and so keeps releasing PTH

Shifts PTH / Ca Curve to the Right 

Kidney effects - Uca low and increase reabsorption of Ca 


Diagnosed by low Ca/Cr clearance ratio

does NOT require treatment 


What are potential causes of non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia? What lab values would you see? 

Here, PTH suppressed in response to High Calcium indicating normal Parathyroid feedback response

3 types of causes:

1) 1,25 OH D mediated: Vitamin D intoxication, Granulomatous diseases, Lymphomas

2) PTHrP Mediated - Cancer

3) Other - Milk Alkali syndrome or Multiple Myeloma


What is the most common cause of inpatient (symptomatic) Hypercalcemia? 



How do you treat Hypercalcemia overall? Acutely?

Overall: Treat Underlying cause:

- Primary hyperparathyroid - surgery

-cancer - surgery, CTX/RTX

-granulomatous disease - glucocorticoids


- Saline and Loop Diuretics (Furosemide)

-IV Bisphosphonates - best is Zoledronic Acid (also used in osteoporosis) 

- Calcitonin - minimally effective 


How do IV bisphosphonates work? 

Used for Acute tx of Hypercalcemia and for Osteoporosis

They have a phosphate moiety that is P-O-P and so binds to bone and OC can not break bone down --> REDUCE TURNOVER so can't get more Ca out of bones 


What is the presentation and what are the causes for secondary Hyperparathyroidism? 

Nothing wrong w/ Parathyroid glands but they are reacting properly to something else

DX: Normal or Low Calcium and Elevated PTH


- Whole body deficiency of Ca or Excess P

Most common Cuase is CKD!!!! 

- Hypercalcuria - renal tubular leak


What are complications of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism? 

Bone loss from PTH breakdown

If associated w/ increased serum P like in CKD then Vascular Calfications 


How does Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism arise? How do you diagnose it? 

Diagnosis - elevated Ca and Elevated PTH or inappropriately normal PTH (same as Primary) 


Follows previous secondary hyperparathyroidism - CKD

Pathology cahgnes from Hyperplasia to development of Monoclonal Tumor (adenoma) w/ Autonomy


What are the markers / how do you diagnose Hypoparathyroidism? 

Low serum Ca

High P

LOW PTH or inappropriatly normal PTH (should be high) 


What are the etiologies of Hypoparathyroidism? 

Post-operative - Thyroidectomy, Head/Neck surgery MOST COMMON!


Autoimmune - Polyglandular failure syndrome - AIRE gene


Autosomal Dominant - CASR Mutation - 50% 

(vs FHH where inactivating mutation here it is the opposite and overly stimulated so stop releasing PTH and shift curve LEft) 


What are the signs and symptoms of Hypocalcemia? 

TETANY!!!! HALLMARK - paresthesias, cramps, laryngospasm

Chvostek Sign and Trousseau Sign 

Mental status - fatigue, anxiety, depression --> Psychosis

Head - Calfication of basal ganglia and papilledema

CV - Prolonged QT and Heart failure

Cataracts in Eyes

Fetal - dental hypoplasia

Kidney - stones and nephrocalcinosis - from small group - can get these in both hypo and hyper


What is Chvostek sign? 

What is Trousseau Sign? 

Chvostek - tap along facial nerve and see ipsilateral twitching


Trousseau - elevated BP cuff over systolic for 2 minutes and see carpal spasm 


What is Pseudohypoparathyroidism? What is the clinical Presentation? 

Resistance to PTH 

Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy

End organ resistance to PTH


See Low serum Ca, Elevated P and PTH


- short stature

- short pinky and ring fingers

- Wide spaced nipples (teee hee)



How do you diagnose and what are some causes of Vitamin D Deficiency? Cutoff for deficiency? 

Diagnose: Normal Calcium and Phosphorous but LOW 25-OH-D

TEst 25 OHD!!!!


- inadequate sun (+old age) or malabsorption like in IBD

- Anticonvulsants increase Vit D catabolis

-Obesity - D sequestered in fat 


CUTOFF: 25-OH-D < 30!!! 


What are symptoms of Vitamin D deficiency in kids and adults? 

Childhood - bones are soft --> Rickets 

- Bowed long bones

- Rachitic Rosary

- splaying


Adults - Softening of bones --> Pseudofracture

"looser's Zones" = indentation where arteries course over bones 


What can cause / what do you see in Vitamin D resistance? 

Hereditary Vit D Dependent Rickets:

HVDDR Type 1 - Lack of 1-Alpha Hydroxylase

Responds to Tx w/ 1,25 OHD2

HVDDR Type 2 - mutations in Vit D receptor and TRUE RESISTANCE 

-associated w/ ALOPECIA!!! NO HAIR ANYWHERE!


Treatment of hypocalcemia? 

both mild and crisis?

Mild Hypocalcemia - oral calcium and Vitamin D

Crisis - symptoms include tetany, laryngospasm, seizures

Treatment - IV Ca infusion and Calcitriol 


Describe releationship between bone mass and strength and age. How can you get Osteoporosis?

Bone Mass is proportional to bone strength and fracture risk

Peak Bone mass in early 20s (F) and mid 20s (M) 

>80% controlled by genes


Osteoporosis - from failure to attain normal Peak bone mass or from bone loss or both!


What are the 2 Monogenic (developmental) Bone disorders? 

Osteoporosis Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG) from lack of signal transduction

- Inactivating mutation in LRP5 (LDL-Receptor-like-protein-5) so less bone is produced

-Childhood Osteoporosis and Congenital Blindness


Osteogenesis Imperfecta - defect in Excracellular proteins

- mutations in Type 1 Collagen gene

- Osteoporosis +/- Blue Sclerae


What are RF for osteoporosis? 



Family History 

White or Asian

Low body weight - especially post-menopausal women


Alcohol use (EtOH toxic to osteoblsats)

Hypogonadism (up to 1/3 men) 


POor calcium intake


What are some secondary causes of Osteoporosis to be aware of? 


- Glucocorticoids like prednison

- Aromatase Inhibitors

- Chronic Anticoagulants

- Antidepressants and Anti-convulsants


- Cushings


-DM 1 and 2

- GI problems - Celiac's Crohns, UC

-Chronic illness - COPD, CHF

- Muscle weakness


How do you diagnose Osteoporosis? Osteopenia vs osteoporosis? 


OR by DXA which measure Bone mineral density

Use T score for post-menopausal women and men >50 yo:

Osteopenia - T score -1.0 to -2.5


For every -1 on T score, RR of fracture increases 2-3 fold

Use Z score for children and young adults:

SD from age matched controls and Fragility Fracture 



Who gets treated in osteoporosis? 

EVERYONE GETS TREATED!!!! who has osteoporosis


Osteopenia - calculate absoulte 10 year risk of fracture w/ FRAX tool and treat those w/ >20% risk for fracture and/or anyone w/ fracture of hip or >3% risk fracture of hip



What are the different types of treatments for OSteoporosis? 

Anti-resorptive --> Interfere w/ OC function

- Bisphoshphonates: Alendronate, Risendronate, Zolendronc Acid, or Ibandronate (Ibandronate does not reduce hip fracture) 

RANKL Inhibitor- Denosumab

SERM - Reloxifene

Calcitonin - Treat Hypercalcemi

Anabolic --> Get OB to build bone

- Teriparatide PTH 1-34 SubQ injections 

Non-Pharmacologic Treatment:

- CA and Vit D (best to give 25OHD really high doses) 

-exercise and weight bearing improved BMD


What is PAget Disease of Bone? Who gets it? How does it work? 

Osteoporosis is global whereas Paget Disease is Focal disorder of bone metabolism 

See areas of enlarged but weakened bones and can cause bone pain and neurological complications


2-3% 40 yo but >80 yo 10% prevalence

Male:Female 4:3

Autosomal Dominant!!!!

Pathophysiology: Increased rate of bone turnover via increased # OB, OC, and vasculature leading to new, immature, fragile woven bone that is prone to fracture


What are the clinical features of PAget Disease? 

95% Asymptomatic!!!

Symptoms include:


- Increased warmth over bone bc more vasculature

- fracture bone deformity

- HF and/ or neurological



What bones are affected in PAget's Disease? 

2/3 polyostotoic and 1/3 monostotic

ANY bone can be affected - doesn't spread to new bones over time!!!


Most common bones: 

72% Pelvis, then Spine, Skull, Tibia


What are Lab markers of bone formation? Bone Resporption? Turnover? 

What do you see in PAgets? 

Bone Formation = Alkaline Phosphatase (osteocalcin)

Bone Resorption Marker = N-Telopeptide (morning urine) or serum C-Telopeptide, Urine Pyridinium crosslinks, Hydroxyproine

Markers of bone Turnover - correlate w/ eachother and disease severity 


In PAgets -- BOTH ELEVATED!!! 


What do you see on RAdiographic evaluation of Paget's Disease?

can get nuclear bone scan or XR and see areas up uptake 

use MRI or CT to rule out tumor (+/-Biopsy)


Coarsening Trabeculae

Osteoporosis Circumscirpta - one little punched out area

Picture Frame Sign - vertebrae getting bigger but more luscent inside

Pelvic Brim sign - coarsening trabeculae 

Cotton Wool Spots - snowstorm appearance


Treatment for PAget's Disease? 

Treat ALL patients w/ Bisphosphonates to reduce bone turnover bc natural history of disease is progression and want to prevent fractures


What is Renal Osteodystrophy? Who gets it and why? 


What are the types? 

Present in ALL pts w/ CKD by the time that they reach dialysis due to 1) Phosphate Retention 2) Excess PTH and 3) reduced Production of 1,25 OH-D 


Types Include:

Hyperparathyroid Bone Disease - Osteitis Fibrosa cYstica - HIGH PTH!!!!

Adynamic Bone disease - lower than expected PTH

Mixed - Osteomalacia and Hyperparathyroid 


What are Hereditary Rickets Diseases? Name them - 3 - and their presentation/features? 

Rickets and Osteomalacia due to HypophosphatemiaRenal Phosphate Wasting:

XLH: X-linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets

Fanconi Syndrome - renal wasting of P, glucose, AA, and associated w/ renal failure

- Phosphate and glucose and AA wasted

Oncogenic Osteomalacia (FGF23) - benign mesenchymal tumor produces FGF23

- Phosphaturia --> Osteomalacia and fractures