Lab 13:Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 13:Urinary System Deck (34):
1

The superficial layer of the kidney

Renal Cortex

2

This is the inner later of the kideny

Renal Medulla

3

These are a series of darker, conical regions found in the renal medulla. The majority of the tubules of the nephrons occur in these regions.

Renal Pyramid

4

These are inward extensions of the renal cortex that separate the renal pyramids.

Renal Columns

5

These are the tips at the base of the renal pyramids which project into a minor calyx. These structures drain urine from the pyramids into the minor calyxes.

Renal Papillae

6

A cup shaped cavity at the base of the renal papillae , which drains urine from the renal papillae into the major calyxes.

Minor Calyx

7

The cavity formed by the convergence of several minor calyxes into the renal pelvis.

Major Calyx

8

A funnel shaped cavity formed by the convergence of the major calyxes, which collects urine from the major calyxes and joins the ureter.

Renal Pelvis

9

A tube which conducts urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder

Ureter

10

The connective tissue covering the external surface of the kidney.

Renal Artery

11

The vessel which carries unoxygenated and filtered blood from the kidney to the inferior vena cava

Renal Vein

12

Urine is normally sterile, there fore the presence of these in the urine suggests an infection in the urinary tract.

Leukocytes

13

The presence of this compound indicates a probable urinary tract infection, because it is formed when bacteria in the urine change nitrate to this.

Nitrite

14

A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the urine. Many factors such as drug, diet, time of day, and health affect this in urine.

pH

15

These are large molecules and are not normally filtered by the kidney, but those that are, are reabsorbed. Acute causes may include severe emotional stress, strenuous exercise, or fever. Chronic causes may include diabetes, malaria, heart disease, high blood pressure, sickle cell anemia, or even pregnancy.

Protein

16

Usually this is reabsorbed by the kidney. However, when this has very high levels it can indicate diabetes mellitus, kidney damage, or stress.

Glucose

17

These are produced when fat is metabolized for energy. A large amount of these in the urine may indicate a low carbohydrate diet, starvation, or diabetic ketoacidosis(a life threatening chemical imbalance which occurs in people with diabetes).

Ketones

18

This compound forms from the breakdown of bilirubin. It is eliminated from the body through the bile, into the digestive tract. Usually only small amounts of this is found in urine. The presence of this in the urine may indicate liver damage or blockage of the flow of bile from the gallbladder.

Urobilinogen

19

This compound is formed from the breakdown of red blood cells. It is not normally found in urine. Its presence may indicate liver damage, or blockage of the flow of bile from the gallbladder.

Bilirubin

20

This is normally not filtered by the kidney because they are too large to pass through the glomerulus. The presence of this in the urine indicates damage to the kidney caused by inflammation, kidney stones, kidney disease, or blunt trauma.

Blood

21

These in the urine result from sloughing off of epithelium from urinary tract. Presence of these in urine may indicate inflammation of the urinary tract or disease.

Cells

22

These are hardened proteins and cells which can form plugs in the shape of the distal convoluted renal tubule. They form in very acidic urine.

Casts

23

These form when minerals crystalize in the urine. They may indicate kidney stones or a metabolic problem.

Crystals

24

These are rough cuboidal cells which slough off from the lining of the ureters, urinary bladder, and renal pelvis of the kidneys.

Transitional epithelial cells

25

These are flat nucleated cells which slough off from the lining of the urethra.

Sqamous epithelial cells

26

The red blood cells found in urine, the presence of which may indicate kidney damage.

Erythrocytes

27

The nucleated white blood cells, the presence of which may indicate a urinary tract infection.

Leukocytes

28

A precipitate of red blood cells in the shape of a tubule or duct.

Erythrocyte cast

29

A precipitate of white blood cells in the shape of a tubule or duct

Leukocyte cast

30

A precipitate of cells which remained in the duct but degenerated into this.

Granular cast

31

A cast composed of RBCs, WBCs, and oval fat droplets.

Hyaline casts

32

Greenish crystals usually in the shape of an octahedron.

Calcium oxalate

33

Yellow to reddish brown crystals, highly polymorphic in shape.

Uric acid

34

These crystals have various forms, including six to eight sided prisms appearing in single or a rosette shape.

Calcium phosphate