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1

A purpose of science

To provide natural explanations about our world.

2

How do scientist provide natural explanations about our world.

They do this through
. documentation
. experimentation

3

Steps of the SCIENTIFIC METHOD

. Begin with simple OBSERVATION
. From the observation they formulate TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS that generate predictable outcomes
.EXPERIMENTS are used to test hypothesis
.

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MEASUREMENT

one of the fundamental aspect of observation AND EXPERIMENT

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What is used to make measurements

INSTRUMENTS

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All instruments have the what properties

1. PRECISION
2. ACCURACY
SENSITIVITY

7

PRECISION

The precision of an instrument is its repeatability.
. A precisie instrument will give the same reading under the same conditions

8

ACCURACY

The accuracy of an instrument is its agreement with the true value

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SENSITIVITY

is how much the true value must change for the instrument to register a change

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What units of measurement do scientists use

International system of units

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SI units for length

Meter

12

Volume

Liters

13

Mass

Grams

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Time

Seconds

15

2 parts to a scientific notation are

1 .coefficient ( a number between 1 and 10)
2 .base ( base 10 raise to an exponent)

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Negative exponents

Number is less than 1

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Positive exponent

The number is greater than one

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SIGNIFICANT DIGITS

All numbers that are certain, and one number that contains some uncertainty

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F---> C Fahrenheit to Celsius
C=?

C= 5/9 ( F-32)

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F=?

(9/5 *C ) +32

21

Fossil records indicate that life arose when

3.5 billion years ago

22

Earliest life forms consisted of

Simple bacteria- like organisms

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Eukaryotes appeared ( organisms with nuclei and membrane organelles)

1.5 billion years ago

24

Simple unicellular forms would give rise to complex multicellular forms when

750 million years ago

25

The Cambrian explosion

Occurred 540 million years ago
. Marked a period when many of the modern phyla arose in marine environments.

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The invasion of land by plants and animals occurred

500-450 million years ago

27

What classification system do scientist use to identify species

A binomial classification system known as the LINNEAN classification system

28

The scientific name of a each species consist of

.the specific epithet
. The genus to which the species belongs
( Genus species)
( genus is capitalized species is not, italicized or underlined

29

COMMON NAMES

Vernacular names that are applied to species

30

How should scientific names be written

Italicized or underlined

31

Hierarchy of taxa ( of LINNEAN classification)

Domain
Kingdom
Phyla
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Dumb kings play chess on fiber glass seats

32

What do botanist call the phyla group

Division

33

When referring to more than one species within a genus without referring to each species we use the abbreviation

Spp.

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The abbreviation sp. is used when

Used after the genus if the identity of the species is uncertain

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MONOPHYLETIC FORMS

Reflects the branching pattern of evolutionary history

It contains and ancestral form and all of its descendent species

36

How are monophyletic groups named

Each group is given a formal name but the LINNEAN category is not included eg. Instead of human belonging Class Mammalia, it would just be Mammalia.

This is called PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS OR CLADISTICS

37

What are the 2
Major categories of organisms based on 1. Cellular complexity
2. Modes of reproduction

PROKARYOTES
EUKARYOTES

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DOMAIN is made up of 3 groups

Domain. Bacteria
Domain archea
Domain bacteria

39

PROKARYOTES are made up of 2 domains

Domain bacteria a
Domain bacteria

40

Characteristics of Prokaryotes

.No nucleus ( cells)
.No membrane bound organelles ( eg mitochondria, chloroplasts)( cells)
.DNA exist as a single large molecule that is ringed shaped
.Able to transfer genetic material from one cell to another but not sexually

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AUTOTROPHS

Self feeders
Make complex organic compounds from inorganic sources
. Many are photosynthetic

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Eg of AUTOTROPHIC BACTERIA

CYANOBACTERIA ( blue green algae)

43

Where do cyanobacteria live

Blue green algae photosynthetic autotrophic prokaryotic bacteria live in ponds , lakes , oceans
. Play a major role in generating the oxygen that animals breathe via photosynthesis

44

2 ways in which Cyanobacteria exists

1. They may grow as single cells
2. In colonies ( filaments ) ( filament onus Cyanobacteria )

45

Bacteria may also be HETEROTROPHS which are

Other feeders
The obtain energy and nutrients from organic compounds

46

Characteristics of EUKARYOTES

Contain a true nucleus with multiple chromosomes
Organelles
Single and multicelled organisms

47

4 main kingdoms of EUKARYOTA

Fungi
Protist
Plantae
Animalia

48

PROTISTS

Smallest eukaryotes
Unicellular ( small percentage are multicellular

49

2 major groups of PROTISTS ( eukaryotes)

.PROTOZOANS ( animal like PROTISTS)
. ALGAE ( plant like protist)

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PROTOZOANS

"First animals"

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How do PROTOZOANS feed

They are PROTISTS that are HETEROTROPHS ( they ingest food)
. they feed on bacteria or other Protistants, or are parasitic

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Eg of protozoan PROTIST

AMEBAS

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AMEBAS

Are protozoan PROTISTS that lack flagella and move about by means of pseudopods

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What do amebas use to move

Pseudopods

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PSEUDOPODS are used by amebas to do what

To move
Surround and capture prey
They are cytoplasmic extensions

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The contrast of amebas ( PROTOZOANS )

FLAGELLATES and CILIATES

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FLAGELLATES

Are PROTOZOANS ( PROTISTS) that move with a whip like flagella

58

Ciliates

Are PROTOZOANS that move around with short cilia which are also used to funnel water

59

Cilia

Short hairlike rhythmically beating organelles on the surface of certain cells that provide mobility or move fluids , as in PROTOZOANS

60

Flagella

Whip like appendage that serve for movement as in PROTOZOANS

61

DOMAIN is made up of 3 groups

Domain Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Domain Eukaryota

62

ALGAE

Eukaryotic Protistans that are photosynthetic ( they all have chloroplasts that contain CHLOROPHYLL A

. Can be both unicellular and multicellular

63

2 forms that algae exist

. In water bodies ( flagellated cells that swim)
. Or organized into loose assemblages of cells that form colonies

64

SEAWEEDS

Marine algae that have complex multicellular bodies ( brown , red, green algae, kelp)

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How do algae feed

They are photosynthetic so they are autotrophic

66

Eg of brown algae

Fucus ( large macroscopic forms that attach to rocks)with HOLDFASTS and float with FLOATATION BLADDERS

67

Kingdom FUNGI how do they feed

Heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally by excreting digestive enzymes then absorb the nutrients

68

Most fungi have cell walls made of

CHITIN ( not cellulose)

69

Give examples of fungi

Yeast
Mushrooms
Toadstools
Rusts
Lichens
Molds

70

What is the HYPHAE on fungus

Long branching filamentous structure of a fungus

71

MYCELIUM

The hyphae collectively form a complex interbranching network

72

MUSHROOM

A fungi that consist of tightly packed hyphae and is the reproductive structure produced by the underground mycelium ( mycelium is made up of hyphae)

73

what key role do fugi play in the ecosystem

They are decomposers

74

MYCORRHIZAE ( fungus root)

Mutualistic relationship between plant root and fungus

Myc= fungus
Rhyz= root
The fungal hyphae provide phosphorus to the plant roots and while the plant provides sugars to the fungus

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why are mycorrhizae associations important

95 % of all vascular plants have mycorrhizae

76

The 2 largest groups of fungi are

1. Ascomycetes
2. Basidlomycetes

77

Ascomycetes
Asco= bag or bladder or sac, mycetes = bellflower

Aka SAC FUNGI
Are the largest group

they include
Unicellular yeast
Cup fungi
Truffles
Morels

78

Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes all form sexual spores known as

ASCI

79

the fruit bodies of ascomycetes are

ASCOCARPS
ASCO= sacs
Carps= fruit

80

BASIDIOMYCETES
Basidio= pedestal
Mycetes= bellflower

They include

Mushrooms
Shelf fungi
Puffballs
Rusts
Smuts

81

The fruiting bodies of BASIDIOMYCETES are called

Basidiocarps

82

LICHEN

Is a symbiotic( mutulistic) relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner( usually a green algae or cyanobacteria.

83

The scientific name of a lichen is

The name of the fungus that forms the lichen

84

Kingdom plantae consists of

Photosynthetic eukaryotes

85

The 5 groups of plantae are

Mosses
Liverworts
Ferns
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms

86

Data suggest that the 5 groups of plants descended from

A single species of green algae

87

Vascular tissue of plants are used to

Transport substances through the plants

88

Reproduction of plants include ALTERNATION OF GENERATION

Haploid and diploid stages alternate in life cycles

89

How many phyla of plants exist

12

90

BRYOPHYTES


NONVASCULAR PLANTS
Common name refers to memebers of 3 genetically diverse plant phyla that include
1. Mosses
2. Liverworts
3. Hornworts

91

NONVASCULAR PLANTS lack

True vascular tissue for transporting water and nutrients

92

The leafy portion of the moss is called

GAMETOPHYTE ( haploid stage) ( 1 n)

93

the yellow brownish stalks of mosses are called

SPOROPHYTES ( diploid stage 2 n) produces spores

94

A SPORE

A reproductive cell capable of growing into a adult plant without fertilization ( union of egg and sperm)
Reproduce ASEXUALLY

95

Ferns are also called

Pterophyta

96

Fern structure and reproduction

VASCULAR, reproduce by spore rather than seeds
.

97

The leafy part of the fern is called

SPOROPHYTE 2 n diploid stage

98

Ferns underground horizontal stems are called

RHIZOMES From which leaves unfurl ( FRONDS)

99

FRONDS

The leaves that unfurl from RHIZOMES

100

The roots of ferns emerge from

The sides of rhizomes

101

Spores are produced in special structures known as

SPORANGIA ( located on the underside of the leaf in clusters called SORI

102

SORI of ferns

are clusters of spORANGIA found underneath the leaves

103

Ferns aka

PYTEROPHYTA

104

2 types of seeds plants are

GYMNOSPERM
ANGIOSPERM

105

SEED

A complex structure that includes embryonic sporophytes that is surrounded by nutritive tissue and a seed coat

106

Stages of a plant seed

Adaptive stage ( allows the plants to disperse widely)
Dormant stage( allows embryo to survive until appropriate environment

107

GYMNOSPERMS are and Include

Cycads
Gringos
CONIFERS
They are plants that have seeds but have no flowers

108

Eg of conifers

Pine
Firs
Spruces
Cedars
Junipers
Cypresses
Redwoods

Most are evergreen

109

RESIN

Resin found in the linear leaves of conifers a chemical that deters insects and fungal attack

110

The CONES of conifers

Special reproductive structures that produce either
pollen ( male cones) or
Seeds ( female cones)

111

ANGIOSPERMS

Flowering plants ANTHOPYTA

112

2 major groups of angiosperms

Monocots
EUDICOTS

113

MONOCOTS INCLUDE

Lillies
Orchids
Palms
Grasses
Comprise of 23% of all flowering plants

114

EUDICOTS

Include more typical flowers
Sunflowers petunias roses oaks

115

Monocots have a single seed leaf called

COTYLEDON

116

EUDICOTS ( dicots )

Have 2 cotyledons

117

The leaf venation of monocots

Parallel
And flowering parts mostly come in 3s or multiple of 3

118

The venation and flowering of EUDICOTS

Network of veins
Flowers come mostly in 4s or 5s

119

COTYLEDON

Is the leaf of the embryo of a seed

120

PRORIFERA

Sponges in the animalia kingdom

121

Sponges have CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION which means

Their cells have specialized so that different cells perform different functions , but similar cells are not organized into tissues

122

How do water move through sponges

Through a system of pores and canals
Water is driven by the beating of flagella that are located on specialized cells that line the internal canals and opening of sponges

123

How do sponges feed

They are FILTER FEEDERS

124

Why are sponges important ecologically

1. With corals and algae create the physical structure of coral reefs
2. They filter water reducing turbidity( muddy water) with interferes with photosynthesis

125

Bath sponges vs other types

They consist mostly of collagen fibers( SPONGIN) while others have both SPONGIN and SPICULES ( made of mineral deposits)

126

CNIDARIA include

Jellyfishes
Hydras
Sea anemones
Corals

127

The structure of CNIDARIA

Radially symmetric
TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION without organs
Have 2-3 layers
GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY ( a single exterior opening that serves as mouth and anus ( often with tentacles surrounding it)

128

The 2 body forms of Cnidaria are

MEDUSA
POLYP

129

MEDUSA

Free swimming or floating
. Mouth on the concave side
. Tentacles originate at the rim of the umbrella

130

POLYPS

. Are permanently attached
. One end is attached to the substrate and the other end is a mouth usually surrounded but tentatacles found at the opposite end
. They may occur in colonies which each have a specific jod ( feeding, defense, reproduction

131

CORALS

CNIDARIAS that are colonial species that lack medusa stage and have colonial polyps

132

CORAL POLYPS

Secrete protective mineral deposits around their bodies that are the building blocks for coral reefs

133

NEMATOCYTES

Organelles do Cnidaria that are used to prey and deter predators
. Each contain a coiled thread with barbs that may be poisoned( the poison is driven through byHYDROSTATIC PRESSURE)

134

Major parts of the MOLLUSCA are

.head ( highly cephalized)
. Muscular foot adjacent to the head
. MANTLE

135

MANTLE of a MOLLUSCA

A sheath of tissue formed from the dorsal body wall.
. Surrounds the mantle cavity and may assist in gas exchange and secretion of shell
. The mantle produces the animals shell

136

CEPHALAPODS

Are MOLLUSCA that predatory to fish and other MOLLUSCA

137

MOLLUSCA include

Oysters
Slugs
Schistosomiasis ( parasitic infection by snails)
Snails
Clams
Squidsqfb


138

ANNELIDA

Segmented worms

139

Annelids include

Earthworms
Polychaete worms
Leeches

140

Segmentation of Annelida is also called

METAMERISM

A body segment is called a METAMERE ( they contain elements of body systems
. It increases the efficiency of body movement allowing the effect of muscle contractions to be extremely localized
.

141

ANTHROPODA

Include insects
Crustaceans
Spiders
Scorpions
Centipede

142

TAGMATA OF ANTHROPODS

specialized body regions which include the
head
thorax and
abdomen

143

The condition of fusion of the TAGMATA is called

TAGMOSIS

144

The exterior of ANTHROPODA

EXOSKELETON made of CHITIN

145

How do ANTHROPODS grow

ECDYSIS
molting the exoskeleton

146

Most ANTHROPODS are DIOECIOUS

Have paired reproductive organs ( ovaries and testes)
. Reproduction is internal
. Most lay eggs
. Metamorphism

147

ECHINODERMATA include

Have pentaradia symmetry
Include sea stars, sea cucumber, sea urchins, sand dollars

148

The outer layer of Echinodermata

Cancerous endoskeleton composed of separate plates or ossicles

149

Echinodermata internal plumbing

A water vascular system whic function in part to operate tube feet which are used to pry open shells( the stomach is everted and digestive juices released on the prey.

150

CHORDATA consist of

. Vertebrates
.2 in vertebrate groups ( sea squirts and amphioxus)

151

NOTOCHORD

A rod that extends most of the length of the body when fully developed

152

Characteristics of Chordata

Dorsal
Hollow verve cord
Tail projecting beyond the anus
Endoskeleton