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Flashcards in Lab Demo Deck (21)
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• Introduced from Europe → US

• Host: Elm Tree

• Vector--> Bark Beetles (3 species)


Dutch Elm Disease (Ophiostoma ulmi)


• Very small pores, each lined with thousands of basidia

• Perennial fruiting body (may grow for many yrs – adding new layers of pores)

• Name: fresh specimen can be drawn on with sharp object and become art


Artist’s conk (Ganoderma applanatum)


• Reported to have medicinal benefits

• Fruiting bodies are common (look like they have been varnished)

• Produced on commercial basis


Reishi (Ganoderma lucidium)


• Can reach 2 ft+ in diameter

 • When fruiting body matures, they crack open and spores dispersed by rain splash/pressure, then wind


Puff Ball (Calvatia)


• Grows on side of dead trees (good to eat, grown commercially)


Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus)


• Mushrooms (fleshy cap on a stalk) that produce pores known as boletes (basidia line the pores)

Boletus sp.


• Primary Host: Cedar or Juniper Trees (Galls of cedar apple rust (cedar apples) on cedar)

• Alternate Host: Apple and Crabapple

• Fungal disease – requires 2 diff host species to complete lifecycle (both must grow in proximity)

• Disease: reddish/brown galls up to 2 in in diameter on host branches

• Spring: galls swell – covered with spikes → Later form gelatinous (yellow/orange) “spore horns” that discharge disease spores – wind dispersal (to infect alternate host where pale yellow/orange spots form on leaves/fruit & may develop into thread-like projections ~1/4 in long)

Cedar Apple Rust


•Caused by true fungus

•Obligate Biotrophs (need living host for nutrients) and very host specific



Powdery Mildew of grape

• Powdery mildew on roses will not infect grapes and powdery mildew of grapes will not cause powdery mildew of blueberry

•Downy Mildew and Powdery Mildew of grape were both introduced from NA into Europe (19th century) – along with Phylloxera – 3 pests almost destroyed wine industry


• Poisonous (but will not kill you) – causes extreme gastrointestinal upset if consumed

• Young – beige/green

• Mature – green

• Fungi made up of tubes called hyphae

• Fungi have radial growth – if spores land on suitable substrates, fungus will grow outward

• Radial growth – evident in fairy rings: where the fungus underground is not visible, but the fruiting bodies all emerge at the same time in a ring

Chlorophyllum molybdenum

• Fairy ring  (only green-spored mushroom – chloro = green)


•Unlike powdery, spores are usually produced on underside of leaves

Oomycete (NOT fungus)


Downey Mildew (Plasmopara viticola)


• Basidiospores stained red (develop basidia)

Coprinus Mushroom


• Line the inside cup of fungi


• Ascospores inside asci – How many spores are inside each ascus? Eight


• Infects corn kernel, transforms them into large purple tumors full of fungal spores

• Spores: thick walled, dark pigment – wind dispersal

Corn smut fungus


• NOT true fungi

• Grow as large as plasmodia that engulf bacteria; fungal spores as they creep over logs and other substrates

• Fuligo “dog vomit fungus” (not really a fungus)

Slime Molds


• Produce slimy masses of pores (smell attracts flies – dispersal)

• Phallus and Clathrus (Stinky Squid)

• Begin as eggs and emerge to reveal true stinky selves

Stink Horn


• Some mushrooms produce gills; others produce pores (either way, they are lined with basidia that produce 4 basidiospores

Lactarius indigo


• Primary Host: Wheat

• Alternate Host – Barberry (complete lifecycle)


Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis)


• Fruiting body looks like mini bird nest

• Egg-like structures dispersed by rain splash

Birds Nest fungus


• Turned dominant forest species into a shrub

• Causes canker on branches/trucks – lead to tree girdling and death of trunk

• Does not kill roots

• Sexual Repro: by flask-shaped structures produced in bark (within structures, ascospores inside asci – sacs) – wind dispersal

• Asexual Repro: gooey matrix – produced in flask-shaped structures – rain splash dispersal


Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica)


• Primary Host: Oak

• Alternate Host: Pine

• Primary/Alt host determined exclusively by which spore types are produces on which host

• Fungal disease deforms/kills pines (south) – 1950s-60s: damage slash/loblolly pine plantations (causes $mills/yr in damage)

• Two Hosts: Pine & Oak (to complete lifecycle)

• Cannot spread from pine to pine, young oaks are infected (spring) by wind dispersal from pine trees

• Fungus does minimal damage to oak leaves, but in spring: wind dispersed spores produced on young oak leaves infect new pine growth

• Fungus can weaken tree – causing branches to be easily broken  

Fusiform Rust


• Largest living organism in the world (estimated weight 100 tons & be 1,500 yrs old)

• First discovered in Michigan

• Can grow using root-like structures

• DNA fingerprint (like forensics) of many mushrooms scattered over 37 acres were identical – indicated that a single individual fungus was rotting the trees

• Later, found where people knew the honey mushroom to be plentiful, more mushrooms were collected & DNA fingerprinted and to date, the biggest one lives in Oregon forest (for over 2,400 yrs across 2,200 acres)

• Species is commonly known as honey mushroom (discovered when scientists collected honey mushrooms & DNA for research study)


Humongous Fungus (Armillaria)