Flashcards in Lab exam Deck (152)
What is the common structural unit shared by all plants?
What is photosynthesis?
when solar energy is converted into organic matter that all organisms, both photosynthetic and non photosynthetic organisms depend on
What 3 things does photosynthesis require?
water, nutrients and CO2
What are chloroplasts?
cellular organelles where photosynthesis occurs
What are cell walls composed of?
cellulose, pectin and/or lignin to provide structural rigidity
What is the plasma membrane composed of primarily?
What are plasmodesmata?
pores in the cell walls where water and materials are exchanged across plasma membranes of adjacent cells
What is the cytoplasm?
a fluid matrix where chloroplasts, mitochondria and ribosomes are located
What is the nucleus?
where the genetic info is contained within DNA
What are vacuoles?
membrane bound, fluid filled organelles that provide structure within the plant cell and store water and nutrients (where anthocyanin is located)
What are parenchyma cells?
thin walled living cells (ex. onion) -- store E or transder materials among cells
What are collenchyma cells?
unevenly thickened cell walled living cells (ex. strings in celery)
What are sclerenchyma cells?
thick celled walled dead cells (composed of fibers which are long, thin, narrow cells and sclereids which vary in shape and size) -- provide physical support to the shoot
What are chlorenchyma cells?
parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts
3 functions of roots
anchor into the soil, obtain water and nutrients and store E in the form of carbs
Where do leaves/buds/branches arise?
What is considered the distance between 2 nodes?
What are crowns?
very short shoots near the soil surface
Where do new shoots arise from?
Shoot apical meristem
WHat is the terminal bud?
a bud at the tip of a shoot
What are axillary buds?
buds arising from nodes below the terminal buds
What do xylem and phloem do?
xylem: transports water and nutrients
phloem: transports sugars
WHat is a basal bud?
where leaves arise on grass plants
What are culms?
grasses reproductive shoot
What generates width and length?
width: lateral meristem
length: intercalary meristem
What is the cuticle?
prevents water loss from cells in the shoot (waxy - outer epidermis)
What are sieve tubes and companion cells?
sieve tubes: stacked, transporting tubes
companion cells: small cells adjacent to sieve tubes, contain a nucleus and control the cellular function of the sieve tubes
What is phloem composed of?
sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma and fibers
What are some distinguishing factors of monocots?
fiberous root systems, secondary and tertiary roots develop from stem tissue, 1 cotelydon
What are some distinguishing factors of dicots?
large primary root, lateral roots (secondary) that develop from the pericycle, tertiary roots develop from it, 2 or more cotelydons
What does the casparian strip do?
prevents extracellular movement of water and dissolved nutrients into and out of the stele (located on the endodermis)
What is apoplast?
extracellular water movement
What is symplast?
intracellular water movement
What is the pericycle?
Thicker in monocots, meristem of sorts
What are cladophylls?
stem tissue thats a modified shoots to store water ex. flat pads on cacti
What are fleshy stems?
ex. brocolli or cauliflower
What is a bulb?
stem and leaf tissue, surrounded by a tourniquet (papery covering) ex. onion or scaly ex. lily below ground compressed stems with fleshy leaf like structures called scales
- outer scale (papery) acts as damage protection and keeps the insides from drying out
- inner scale acts as a food reserve storage
- large bud
What are corms?
underground fleshy stems that form from axillary buds and have food reserves
- stack on top of one another: grow from cormets
What are tubers?
underground stems that are ribosomes that branch off into accumulations of starch
- have eyes
- modified stem
What is considered a sapling?
a tree less than 5-10m
What are root suckers
they are new shoots that arise from the roots of an existing tree, creating identical clones
What is an ortet?
the original tree in asexual reproduction
WHat is a ramet?
a new sucker branching from the roots of the original tree (the ortet)
WHat is a genet?
all members of a clone from asexual reproduction in trees
What is layering?
when a branch drops to the ground and starts a new tree
What are storage taproots?
true roots lacking eyes ex. carrots/beets
What are stolons aka runners?
above ground horizontal stems that function in asexual reproduction (only variation in asexual reproduction is by mutation)
What are rhizomes
below ground horizontal stems that develops roots and shoots from the nodes and functions in storage of food for renewing shoot growth (where adventitious roots often arise)
What are nodules?
look like tubers but are a home for nitrogen fixing bacteria
What are adventitious roots and what are the 2 types?
roots that arise from a plant part other than the primary root -- arial and prop roots
What does the terminal bud scale scar indicate?
Where the last position of the terminal bud was (distance between demonstrates a year of growth)
What does the fasicular cambium produce?
secondary xylem and phloem
What does the interfasicular cambium form from?
What does the cork cambium form?
forms the cork on the outside and phelloderm inwards
How does the cork repel water?
it is suberized
What is the periderm composed of?
cork, cork cambium and phelloderm
What do lenticels do?
they allow for gas exchange between the cork cambium and vascular cambium
What is dendroecology?
the study of tree rings to reconstruct past environments
Whats the difference between early and late wood?
Early: light, large diameter, thin walled xylem
Late: narrow diameter, thick walled xylem, dark in colour
What are single needles?
like a pine needle
What are fascicled needles?
bunched in groups and joined by the fascicle (2 on 1)
What are awls?
Triangular and pointed (cedar)
What are scales?
hooked like scales, overlapping
What kinda veins do monocots have?
What are trichomes?
aka leaf hairs
What are glabrous leaves?
glossy and smooth since they lack projections
What are pubescent leaves?
covered in trichomes, feel fuzzy
What are scabrous leaves?
they have sharpened scales that feel rough to the touch
What are bulliform cells?
they are water filled cells that expand and contract to actively fold or roll
What is the difference between petiolate, sessile and clasping
Petiolate: on a petiole
Sessile: no petiole
Clasping: wrapped around stem
Whats the difference between pinnate and palmate?
Pinnate: connected along stem
palmate: connected to one point (like fingers to the palm of your hand)
What kinda veins do dicots have?
netted, pinnate or palmate
What are fleshy petioles?
Theyre attached to a stem (rhubard/celery)
What are drip tips?
they shed water from the surface of the leaf (help improve gas exchange rates )
What are tendrils?
linear leaves or shoots that wrap around objects to help support the stems of vine like plants (ex. pea plants)
What are spines?
modified leaves (ex. cacti)
What are thorns?
modified stems located at nodes
What are sensitive plants?
respond to touch by folding up their leaves (ex. mimosa)
What are trichomes?
epidermal outgrowths such as hairs, glands or scales that prevent sucking insects from penetrating the leaf blade (deter insects basically)
What are insectivorous plants?
have highly modified leaves to trap and absorbs nutrients from the dead bodies of insects (ex. venus fly trap, sundew, pitcher plant_
What are reproductive leaves?
they produce platelets on leaves (baby plants on a mother plant)
What are window leaves?
CAM plants that are conical and buried so just the tip is exposed (has thick epidermis and gelatinous water filed cells that look like windows that let in light for the chloroplasts inside)
What is the most visually striking part of a flower?
What does the perianth consist of?
sepals (calyx), petals (corolla)
What is the calyx?
What is the corolla?
What are tepals?
When the petals and sepals are similar in size (not tulips tho)
What do nectaries do?
they are tissue swellings with sugar solution to attract polinators
What is a stamen composed of?
filament and anther
What is a pistil composed of?
ovary, style and stigma
What is the carpel?
makes up the pistil, seed bearing structure in the innermost whorl
What is the funiculus?
the stalk by which an ovule or seed is connected to the placenta in the ovary (umbilical cord)
What is the locule?
cavities within an ovary
Complete vs incomplete
complete: have the calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils
incomplete: missing one or more
Perfect vs imperfect
Perfect: when stamens and pistils are present (hermaphrodite)
Imperfect: male (staminate) or female (pistillate) not both
What are monoecious flowers?
have both staminate and pistillate flowers on a single plant
What are dioecious flowers?
either staminate or pistillate flowers, not both
Regular vs Irregular
Regular = actinomorphic (mirror image along more than one plane)
Irregular = zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical)
Superior vs Inferior ovary
superior: above sepals and petals (more common)
inferior: below sepals and petals
Palea vs lemma
Palea: where the flower parts are inserted
lemma: partially covers the palea
What do lodicules do?
they open or close the flowers
Ray flower features
lack sexual organs, function to attract pollinating insects
Disk flower features
reduced perianth, specialized for reproduction
What is an aster?
ray outside, disk inside (like a sunflower)
What is a spadix?
has small flowers on a fleshy stem surrounded by a singular petal called the spathe
What is a catkin?
a slim cylindrical flower cluster
What is a spike?
all attached directly to a singular stalk (looks like a spike)
Umbel vs compound umbel
umbel: all connected to one point, like a dandelion
compound umbel: all connected to one point but by multiple stems
Raceme vs Panicle
Raceme: one step up from spike, all attached to main stem but on little stems (ex. bluebells)
Panicle: one step up from raceme, extra branched raceme (on stalks, on stalks, on main stem)
What are the 3 layers of fruit?
exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp
What are simple fruits?
they develop from a single flower with a single pistil (have more than one seed -- ex. cranberry, squash, cucumber, etc.)
What are multiple fruits?
they develop from several to many individal flowers in an infloresence (ex. pineapple)
What is an aggregate fruit?
they develop from a single flower which has several to many pistils
What are the 4 types of fleshy fruits?
berry (pepper), drupe (stony endocarp), pome (apples) and syconium (fig)
What are the 6 dry fruits that split at maturity?
follicle, legume, silique, silicle, capsule, loment
What is a follicle?
splits along one side (milkweed)
What is a legume?
splits along 2 sides
What is a silique?
splits along 2 sides but the seeds are bourne on a cental partition (twice as long as wide) ex. canola (papery membrane)
What is a silicle?
same as the silique but the fruit is less than twice as long as wide ex. stinkweed
What is a capsule?
consists of 2 or more carpels that split in a variety of ways and not have a translucent septum (like a rattle)
What is a loment?
a fruit composed of a single carpel with obvious constrictions between seeds (ex. radish -- think pearl necklace)
What are the 6 fruits that don't split at maturity?
achene, nut, nutlet, grain (/caryopsis), samara and schizocarp
What is an achene?
a small, one seeded fruit where the pericarp is free from the seed coat (ex. strawberries, seed in sunflower)
What is a nut?
a single seed similar to an achene but generally larger and the pericarp is much harder and thicker (ex. acorns, hazel nuts, chestnut)
What is a nutlet?
similar to a nut but smaller
What is a grain/caryopsis?
the pericarp is fussed to the seed and cannot be separated from it (all agricultural thangs -- barley, wheat, corn)
What is a samara?
the pericarp extends out into a wing or membrane which aids in dispersal (ex. elm/maple -- helicopters)
What is a schizocarp?
twin fruit of the parsley family which break into 2 one seeded segments upon drying
What are bladders?
aka wings/air sacs that aid in wind dispersal by increasing the SA of the grain
What is the female/male cones?
female: megasporangia (ovulate cone - larger)
male: microsporangia (pollen cone - smaller)
What is the integument?
it becomes the seed coat
Meiosis gives rise to what and how many survive, then develops into what containing what?
gives rise to 4 megaspores, only 1 survives and develops into the megagametophyte which contains one or more archegonia
What are serotinous cones?
cones that can only be opened with heat since they are resin coated
What is an aril?
outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed (fleshy cup)
What are cotelydons
they are seed leaves that emerge first
What is the plumule?
the embryonic leaf
What is the epicotyl?
Where the shoot system develops from (above cotelydons, below leaves) (epi = above)
What is the radicle?
where the root system develops from
What is the hypocotyl?
the middle region between the radicle and cotelydons (hypo = below) (hooks)
What are the haploid and diploid plants?
What are the shapes of embryos of monocots?
What is the scutellum?
a single cotelydon that moves nutrients from the endosperm to the embryo
What is the coleoptile?
it encloses the plumule (protection)
What is the coleorhiza?
it encloses the root
What is the endosperm?
it acts as food storage
What is epigeal germination? (dicot)
when the hypocotyl elongates, bends and pills the cotelydons followed by the shoot tip above ground (***cotelydon above ground)
What is hypogeal germination? (dicot)
when the cotelydon and hypocotyl stay below ground (epicotyl elongates)
What occurs in monocot germination?
When the root pierces through the seed coat and grows downwards and the plumule grows up that's protected by the coleoptile
What occurred during the light and dark reaction with the coleus leaves?
it showed that when in the dark, the leaf had to use starch sources to stay alive since it couldn't photosynthesize
the movement of water across semipermeable membranes (higher to lower -- diffusion is vv) (cell test)
What happened when NaCl entered the cell?
you could see the plasma membrane (plasmalemma) and osmosis occurred