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1

What is the common structural unit shared by all plants?

the cell

2

What is photosynthesis?

when solar energy is converted into organic matter that all organisms, both photosynthetic and non photosynthetic organisms depend on

3

What 3 things does photosynthesis require?

water, nutrients and CO2

4

What are chloroplasts?

cellular organelles where photosynthesis occurs

5

What are cell walls composed of?

cellulose, pectin and/or lignin to provide structural rigidity

6

What is the plasma membrane composed of primarily?

lipids

7

What are plasmodesmata?

pores in the cell walls where water and materials are exchanged across plasma membranes of adjacent cells

8

What is the cytoplasm?

a fluid matrix where chloroplasts, mitochondria and ribosomes are located

9

What is the nucleus?

where the genetic info is contained within DNA

10

What are vacuoles?

membrane bound, fluid filled organelles that provide structure within the plant cell and store water and nutrients (where anthocyanin is located)

11

What are parenchyma cells?

thin walled living cells (ex. onion) -- store E or transder materials among cells

12

What are collenchyma cells?

unevenly thickened cell walled living cells (ex. strings in celery)

13

What are sclerenchyma cells?

thick celled walled dead cells (composed of fibers which are long, thin, narrow cells and sclereids which vary in shape and size) -- provide physical support to the shoot

14

What are chlorenchyma cells?

parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts

15

3 functions of roots

anchor into the soil, obtain water and nutrients and store E in the form of carbs

16

Where do leaves/buds/branches arise?

nodes

17

What is considered the distance between 2 nodes?

internodes

18

What are crowns?

very short shoots near the soil surface

19

Where do new shoots arise from?

Shoot apical meristem

20

WHat is the terminal bud?

a bud at the tip of a shoot

21

What are axillary buds?

buds arising from nodes below the terminal buds

22

What do xylem and phloem do?

xylem: transports water and nutrients
phloem: transports sugars

23

WHat is a basal bud?

where leaves arise on grass plants

24

What are culms?

grasses reproductive shoot

25

What generates width and length?

width: lateral meristem
length: intercalary meristem

26

What is the cuticle?

prevents water loss from cells in the shoot (waxy - outer epidermis)

27

What are sieve tubes and companion cells?

sieve tubes: stacked, transporting tubes
companion cells: small cells adjacent to sieve tubes, contain a nucleus and control the cellular function of the sieve tubes

28

What is phloem composed of?

sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma and fibers

29

What are some distinguishing factors of monocots?

fiberous root systems, secondary and tertiary roots develop from stem tissue, 1 cotelydon

30

What are some distinguishing factors of dicots?

large primary root, lateral roots (secondary) that develop from the pericycle, tertiary roots develop from it, 2 or more cotelydons

31

What does the casparian strip do?

prevents extracellular movement of water and dissolved nutrients into and out of the stele (located on the endodermis)

32

What is apoplast?

extracellular water movement

33

What is symplast?

intracellular water movement

34

What is the pericycle?

Thicker in monocots, meristem of sorts

35

What are cladophylls?

stem tissue thats a modified shoots to store water ex. flat pads on cacti

36

What are fleshy stems?

ex. brocolli or cauliflower

37

What is a bulb?

stem and leaf tissue, surrounded by a tourniquet (papery covering) ex. onion or scaly ex. lily below ground compressed stems with fleshy leaf like structures called scales
- outer scale (papery) acts as damage protection and keeps the insides from drying out
- inner scale acts as a food reserve storage
- large bud

38

What are corms?

underground fleshy stems that form from axillary buds and have food reserves
- stack on top of one another: grow from cormets

39

What are tubers?

underground stems that are ribosomes that branch off into accumulations of starch
- have eyes
- modified stem

40

What is considered a sapling?

a tree less than 5-10m

41

What are root suckers

they are new shoots that arise from the roots of an existing tree, creating identical clones

42

What is an ortet?

the original tree in asexual reproduction

43

WHat is a ramet?

a new sucker branching from the roots of the original tree (the ortet)

44

WHat is a genet?

all members of a clone from asexual reproduction in trees

45

What is layering?

when a branch drops to the ground and starts a new tree

46

What are storage taproots?

true roots lacking eyes ex. carrots/beets

47

What are stolons aka runners?

above ground horizontal stems that function in asexual reproduction (only variation in asexual reproduction is by mutation)

48

What are rhizomes

below ground horizontal stems that develops roots and shoots from the nodes and functions in storage of food for renewing shoot growth (where adventitious roots often arise)

49

What are nodules?

look like tubers but are a home for nitrogen fixing bacteria

50

What are adventitious roots and what are the 2 types?

roots that arise from a plant part other than the primary root -- arial and prop roots

51

What does the terminal bud scale scar indicate?

Where the last position of the terminal bud was (distance between demonstrates a year of growth)

52

What does the fasicular cambium produce?

secondary xylem and phloem

53

What does the interfasicular cambium form from?

parenchyma

54

What does the cork cambium form?

forms the cork on the outside and phelloderm inwards

55

How does the cork repel water?

it is suberized

56

What is the periderm composed of?

cork, cork cambium and phelloderm

57

What do lenticels do?

they allow for gas exchange between the cork cambium and vascular cambium

58

What is dendroecology?

the study of tree rings to reconstruct past environments

59

Whats the difference between early and late wood?

Early: light, large diameter, thin walled xylem
Late: narrow diameter, thick walled xylem, dark in colour

60

What are single needles?

like a pine needle

61

What are fascicled needles?

bunched in groups and joined by the fascicle (2 on 1)

62

What are awls?

Triangular and pointed (cedar)

63

What are scales?

hooked like scales, overlapping

64

What kinda veins do monocots have?

parallel

65

What are trichomes?

aka leaf hairs

66

What are glabrous leaves?

glossy and smooth since they lack projections

67

What are pubescent leaves?

covered in trichomes, feel fuzzy

68

What are scabrous leaves?

they have sharpened scales that feel rough to the touch

69

What are bulliform cells?

they are water filled cells that expand and contract to actively fold or roll

70

What is the difference between petiolate, sessile and clasping

Petiolate: on a petiole
Sessile: no petiole
Clasping: wrapped around stem

71

Whats the difference between pinnate and palmate?

Pinnate: connected along stem
palmate: connected to one point (like fingers to the palm of your hand)

72

What kinda veins do dicots have?

netted, pinnate or palmate

73

What are fleshy petioles?

Theyre attached to a stem (rhubard/celery)

74

What are drip tips?

they shed water from the surface of the leaf (help improve gas exchange rates )

75

What are tendrils?

linear leaves or shoots that wrap around objects to help support the stems of vine like plants (ex. pea plants)

76

What are spines?

modified leaves (ex. cacti)

77

What are thorns?

modified stems located at nodes

78

What are sensitive plants?

respond to touch by folding up their leaves (ex. mimosa)

79

What are trichomes?

epidermal outgrowths such as hairs, glands or scales that prevent sucking insects from penetrating the leaf blade (deter insects basically)

80

What are insectivorous plants?

have highly modified leaves to trap and absorbs nutrients from the dead bodies of insects (ex. venus fly trap, sundew, pitcher plant_

81

What are reproductive leaves?

they produce platelets on leaves (baby plants on a mother plant)

82

What are window leaves?

CAM plants that are conical and buried so just the tip is exposed (has thick epidermis and gelatinous water filed cells that look like windows that let in light for the chloroplasts inside)

83

What is the most visually striking part of a flower?

perianth

84

What does the perianth consist of?

sepals (calyx), petals (corolla)

85

What is the calyx?

the sepals

86

What is the corolla?

the petals

87

What are tepals?

When the petals and sepals are similar in size (not tulips tho)

88

What do nectaries do?

they are tissue swellings with sugar solution to attract polinators

89

What is a stamen composed of?

filament and anther

90

What is a pistil composed of?

ovary, style and stigma

91

What is the carpel?

makes up the pistil, seed bearing structure in the innermost whorl

92

What is the funiculus?

the stalk by which an ovule or seed is connected to the placenta in the ovary (umbilical cord)

93

What is the locule?

cavities within an ovary

94

Complete vs incomplete

complete: have the calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils
incomplete: missing one or more

95

Perfect vs imperfect

Perfect: when stamens and pistils are present (hermaphrodite)
Imperfect: male (staminate) or female (pistillate) not both

96

What are monoecious flowers?

have both staminate and pistillate flowers on a single plant

97

What are dioecious flowers?

either staminate or pistillate flowers, not both

98

Regular vs Irregular

Regular = actinomorphic (mirror image along more than one plane)
Irregular = zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical)

99

Superior vs Inferior ovary

superior: above sepals and petals (more common)
inferior: below sepals and petals

100

Palea vs lemma

Palea: where the flower parts are inserted
lemma: partially covers the palea

101

What do lodicules do?

they open or close the flowers

102

Ray flower features

lack sexual organs, function to attract pollinating insects

103

Disk flower features

reduced perianth, specialized for reproduction

104

What is an aster?

ray outside, disk inside (like a sunflower)

105

What is a spadix?

has small flowers on a fleshy stem surrounded by a singular petal called the spathe

106

What is a catkin?

a slim cylindrical flower cluster

107

What is a spike?

all attached directly to a singular stalk (looks like a spike)

108

Umbel vs compound umbel

umbel: all connected to one point, like a dandelion
compound umbel: all connected to one point but by multiple stems

109

Raceme vs Panicle

Raceme: one step up from spike, all attached to main stem but on little stems (ex. bluebells)
Panicle: one step up from raceme, extra branched raceme (on stalks, on stalks, on main stem)

110

What are the 3 layers of fruit?

exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp

111

What are simple fruits?

they develop from a single flower with a single pistil (have more than one seed -- ex. cranberry, squash, cucumber, etc.)

112

What are multiple fruits?

they develop from several to many individal flowers in an infloresence (ex. pineapple)

113

What is an aggregate fruit?

they develop from a single flower which has several to many pistils

114

What are the 4 types of fleshy fruits?

berry (pepper), drupe (stony endocarp), pome (apples) and syconium (fig)

115

What are the 6 dry fruits that split at maturity?

follicle, legume, silique, silicle, capsule, loment

116

What is a follicle?

splits along one side (milkweed)

117

What is a legume?

splits along 2 sides

118

What is a silique?

splits along 2 sides but the seeds are bourne on a cental partition (twice as long as wide) ex. canola (papery membrane)

119

What is a silicle?

same as the silique but the fruit is less than twice as long as wide ex. stinkweed

120

What is a capsule?

consists of 2 or more carpels that split in a variety of ways and not have a translucent septum (like a rattle)

121

What is a loment?

a fruit composed of a single carpel with obvious constrictions between seeds (ex. radish -- think pearl necklace)

122

What are the 6 fruits that don't split at maturity?

achene, nut, nutlet, grain (/caryopsis), samara and schizocarp

123

What is an achene?

a small, one seeded fruit where the pericarp is free from the seed coat (ex. strawberries, seed in sunflower)

124

What is a nut?

a single seed similar to an achene but generally larger and the pericarp is much harder and thicker (ex. acorns, hazel nuts, chestnut)

125

What is a nutlet?

similar to a nut but smaller

126

What is a grain/caryopsis?

the pericarp is fussed to the seed and cannot be separated from it (all agricultural thangs -- barley, wheat, corn)

127

What is a samara?

the pericarp extends out into a wing or membrane which aids in dispersal (ex. elm/maple -- helicopters)

128

What is a schizocarp?

twin fruit of the parsley family which break into 2 one seeded segments upon drying

129

What are bladders?

aka wings/air sacs that aid in wind dispersal by increasing the SA of the grain

130

What is the female/male cones?

female: megasporangia (ovulate cone - larger)
male: microsporangia (pollen cone - smaller)

131

What is the integument?

it becomes the seed coat

132

Meiosis gives rise to what and how many survive, then develops into what containing what?

gives rise to 4 megaspores, only 1 survives and develops into the megagametophyte which contains one or more archegonia

133

What are serotinous cones?

cones that can only be opened with heat since they are resin coated

134

What is an aril?

outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed (fleshy cup)

135

What are cotelydons

they are seed leaves that emerge first

136

What is the plumule?

the embryonic leaf

137

What is the epicotyl?

Where the shoot system develops from (above cotelydons, below leaves) (epi = above)

138

What is the radicle?

where the root system develops from

139

What is the hypocotyl?

the middle region between the radicle and cotelydons (hypo = below) (hooks)

140

What are the haploid and diploid plants?

haploid: gametophyte
diploid: sporophyte

141

What are the shapes of embryos of monocots?

linear

142

What is the scutellum?

a single cotelydon that moves nutrients from the endosperm to the embryo

143

What is the coleoptile?

it encloses the plumule (protection)

144

What is the coleorhiza?

it encloses the root

145

What is the endosperm?

it acts as food storage

146

What is epigeal germination? (dicot)

when the hypocotyl elongates, bends and pills the cotelydons followed by the shoot tip above ground (***cotelydon above ground)

147

What is hypogeal germination? (dicot)

when the cotelydon and hypocotyl stay below ground (epicotyl elongates)

148

What occurs in monocot germination?

When the root pierces through the seed coat and grows downwards and the plumule grows up that's protected by the coleoptile

149

What occurred during the light and dark reaction with the coleus leaves?

it showed that when in the dark, the leaf had to use starch sources to stay alive since it couldn't photosynthesize

150

Osmosis

the movement of water across semipermeable membranes (higher to lower -- diffusion is vv) (cell test)

151

What happened when NaCl entered the cell?

you could see the plasma membrane (plasmalemma) and osmosis occurred

152

What is respiration?

the opposite of photosynthesis -- the breakdown of glucose and other compounds to obtain the stored energy for use in growth and metabolism (produces carbon dioxide, heat (aka E) and water)