Lab Exam # 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Exam # 2 Deck (40):
1

What are the Occiptital Condyles? And where are they located.

These are 2 bone protrusions on the skull where the spinal cord connects (reptiles and birds only have 1). Through the Foramen mangnum

2

Where are the cervical vertebrae and how many are there?

The vertebrae between the skull and shoulders, there are 7

3

Where are the thoracic vertebrae located? and what is different about them from other vertebrae?

From the cervical vertebrae to the end of the rib cage they are the largest.

4

Where are the lumbar vertebrae located?

From the bottom of the thoracic vertebrae (bottom of rib cage) to the sacral vertebrae.

5

What are the sacral vertebrae and what is significant about them?

The sacral vertebrae are fused and connect to the lumbar vertebrae and sit in the muddle of the pelvis.

6

What are caudal vertebrae?

Vertebrae in the tail of an animal.

7

Name the Three common types of skulls.

Synapsid, diapsid and Anapsid.

8

What defines the three skulls?

Anapsid skulls have no holes, synapsid skulls have 1 an diapsids have two.

9

What organism has an anapsid skull?

Turtles/tortises

10

What organism has a synapsid skull?

Mammals

11

What organisms have diapsid skulls?

Reptiles, alligators

12

What are vibrissae?

Whiskers

13

What are mammary glands?

Titties.

14

What does a gall bladder do?

Stores bile and helps break down fats.

15

What does the presence or absence of the gall bladder indicate?

Feeding behaviour. We eat few large meals with lots of fat the gall bladder is needed to process this fat. Horse do not have a gall bladder because they constantly graze in small amounts throughout the day so their livers can handle the slow steady trickle of food.

16

What does the spleen do?

Attached near the stomach it removes dead blood cells and recycles iron.

17

How is surface area increased in the intestine?

Thousands of finger like projections called villi add surface area.

18

What is the classification for seas squirts aka tunicates?

Phylum: Chordata---> Subphylum: Urochordata

19

What is the classification for Lancelets? and another classification of them?

Phylum: Chordata---> Subphylum: Cephalochordate. Prochordates.

20

Name the 5 features of the phylum chordata.

1) Noto chord, 2) DHNC-Dorsal hollow nerve cord. 3) Pharyngeal slits. 4) post anal tail. 5) Endostyle

21

Describe tunicate life cycles.

urochordates have free swimming larva with all 5 chordate features and a sessile adult form.

22

Which chordate features do adult Urochordates retain?

They retain the pharyngeal slits but transform them into a basket for filter feeding and also retain the endostyle.

23

What name can be given to both Urochordata and cephalochordate?

Prochordates.

24

What are cephalochordata?

Tunicates

25

Name one species of cephalochordate from lab.

Amphioxus

26

Name two living agnatha.

lamprey and hagfish. Jawless fish.

27

What is the taxonomic classification for lamprey?

Agnatha---> Petromyzontida

28

What is similar between Petromyzontida and cephalochordates?

amphioxus and ammeocoetes larva (lamprey larva) both have DHNC, a notochord, post anal tail.

29

What was the first agnathans?

Ostracoderms, bony plated filter feeders.

30

What is Chondrichthyes?

Sharks, skates, rays cartilage fish.

31

What is the main difference between cartilage fish and actinopterygii?

Chondrichtheyes lack operculum, a swim bladder and bony ray fins.

32

What is the pyloric ceca?

Finger like protrusions in the stomach that increase surface area. Just like villi in the intestine. attached between the stomach and intestines.

33

What are sarcopterygii?

Lobe finned fish like the lung fish

34

What order do frogs and salamanders belong to?

Anura (no tail) and Caudata.

35

What is the function of a pancreas?

It regulates blood sugar and and helps in digestion.

36

How do frogs breath?

Via positive pressure system, air is brought in through nostrils which are shut and then the throat muscles contract and pus air into lungs. Air is forced down not sucked in. They also can diffuse oxygen through their skin.

37

What is cutaneous Respiration? And when is it vital?

Cutaneous respiration is the ability to breath through the skin and is vital during winter hibernation of amphibians.

38

What is osmoregulation?

the ability to regulate water loss in urine.

39

How many lobes do amphibians have in their hearts?

3

40

What are considered amniotes and why?

Reptiles, birds and mammals they do not depend on water for reproduction because they all have amniotic eggs which retain moisture.