Flashcards in Lab Exam Deck (115):
Blood supply for Wernicke's area
MCA (inferior division)
Location of Broca's area
Inferior frontal gyrus
Location of Wernicke's area
Superior temporal gyrus
What is the arcuate fasciculus?
Pathway in which Broca's and Wernicke's communicate
What cortex is the calcarine sulcus in?
What supplies the gyri brevis?
What artery supplies the primary visual cortex?
Calcarine artery arises from which larger vessel?
Occlusion of the PCA produces what deficits?
Contralateral homonymous hemianopsia
What fibers are found within the anterior white commissure?
Where does the great vein of Galen drain?
What lamina is the dorsal nucleus of Clarke found in?
What is the function of the anterior commissure?
Connects right and left temporal lobes
The septum pellucidum forms the walls of what ventricles?
Occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius will produce what pathology?
What drains the confluence of sinus?
Transverse sinus --> sigmoid sinus --> IJV
When the fasciculus gracilis fibers are decussating, what are they called? What do they travel as?
Internal arcuate fibers. Medial lemniscus.
Lesion to the cauda equina will result in...
Saddle anesthesia--no bowel/bladder control
What is the most common defect of the anterior communicating artery?
What is the function of the precentral gyrus?
What gyrus is the uncus in?
What structure is found deep within the lateral sulcus?
Insula (central lobe)
Occlusion of the ACA will produce deficits where?
Contralateral lower limb
A lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus will produce what deficit?
Broca's aphasia (expressive aphasia)
What vertebral levels are the IMLs located at?
T1-L2 and S2-S4
What do the pontine arteries arise from?
Blockage of the interventricular foramen leads to build up in what structures?
What tract travels through the dorsolateral tract of Lissauer?
Where does the sigmoid sinus drain?
Injury to the anterior paracentral gyrus will lead to what symptoms?
Contralateral lower extremity paralysis
What sense is controlled by the lingual gyrus?
The angular artery is a branch of....
The parahippocampal gyrus is part of what lobe?
Alpha motor neurons are found in what lamina?
What supplies the gyrus rectus?
Orbital branches of the ACA
What is the source of the pericallosal artery?
What portion of the hypothalamus sends info to the pineal body?
Failure of the lamina terminalis to close during development will lead to what condition?
Tertiary neurons from which tract synapse on the post central gyrus?
Occlusion of PICA will lead to what symptoms?
What supplies blood to the cingulate gyrus?
Pericallosal branch of ACA
Superior cerebral veins drain into what sinus?
Superior sagittal sinus
Hyperreflexia can result from occlusion of what branch of the ICA?
The great anastomotic vein of Trolard is an anastomosis of what two vessels?
Superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein
Occlusion of the calcarine branch of the PCA will lead to what symptoms?
Homonymous hemianopsia with macular sparing
Which layer of the spinal dura mater is vascular?
What separates the two cerebellar hemispheres?
What vertebral level does the cauda equina end in adults?
What vertebral level is the conus medullaris found in adults?
What vertebral level is the conus medullaris found in children?
What three vessels do you find in the superior cistern?
1. Great vein of Galen
2. Posterior cerebral artery
3. Superior cerebellar artery
What is the anterior wall of the third ventricle? What is it bounded by?
Lamina terminalis. Bounded on the left and right by the hypothalamus and thalamus.
Name three branches of the ICA.
ACA, MCA, posterior/anterior communicating arties, anterior choroidal artery, opthalamic artery
What happens if you occlude the ophthalmic artery?
Vision loss in ipsilateral eye
What happens if you occlude the anterior choroidal artery?**
Contralateral hemiparesis, hemianesthesia, hemianopia
Name two branches of the vertebral artery.
Anterior spinal artery, PICA
The ICA enters the skull via ______ and the vertebral artery enters via _____.
Carotid canal / foramen magnum
What two vessels supply the choroid plexus in the 4th ventricle?
PICA and AICA
Name three branches of the basilar artery.
Superior cerebellar artery, AICA, pontine branches, labyrinthine artery.
What CN exits the brainstem by passing between the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries?**
Compression of CN III would lead to what symptoms?
Visual deficits, including accommodation and light response
What CN is found in the interpeduncular fossa?
What two veins form the great vein of Galen?**
Internal cerebral vein and basal vein of Rosenthal
What two veins form the straight sinus?**
Inferior sagittal sinus and the great vein of Galen
What three sinuses drain into the confluence of sinuses?
Occipital sinus, straight sinus, and the superior sagittal sinus
The superficial middle cerebral vein drains into what sinus?
Superior anastomotic vein of Trolard drains into what sinus?
Superior sagittal sinus
Inferior anastomotic vein of Labbe connects what two veins? What does it drain into?
Superficial middle cerebral vein and transverse sinus. Empties into transverse sinus.
What vessels run inside the cavernous sinus?
Internal carotid artery, CN VI
What vessels run inside the walls of the cavernous sinus?
CN III, IV, V1, V2
What drains the cavernous sinus?
Superior and inferior petrosal sinuses
Embryological origin of hypothalamus
Embryological origin of aqueduct
Embryological origin of pons/cerebellum
Embryological origin of medulla
Embryological origin of third ventricle
What sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobes?
The inferior parietal lobule is an association area where multiple sensory inputs converge. A lesion to this area is called....
Where is the primary auditory cortex?
Transverse gyri of Heschl
The calcarine sulcus divides the occipital lobe into what two areas?
Cuneus and lingual gyrus
Occlusion of the MCA will cause...**
Contralateral hemiparesis of the upper limb and face
What is the blood supply for the internal capsule, putamen, and caudate?
Lenticulostriate branches of MCA
What is the function of the parahippocampal gyrus?
Peripheral and episodic memory
Lesion to the optic chiasm will lead to....
Lesion to the optic tract will lead to....
What artery travels in the parietal occipital sulcus?
What supplies the splenium of the corpus callosum? What supplies the rest of the corpus callosum?
PCA / ACA
An injury to the bridging veins will lead to what clinical presentation?**
Which lamina contains enkephalin and substance P?**
What laminae contain the nucleus proprius?
Laminae III and IV
What lamina contains the posteromarginal nucleus?
What lamina contains the zona intermedia, the dorsal nucleus of Clarke, and IML?
What lamina is the central canal found in?
What lamina are alpha motor neurons and gamma motor neurons found in?
Fibers from what tract arise from the dorsal nucleus of Clarke?**
Posterior spinocerebellar tract
What tract enters the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle?**
Posterior spinocerebellar tract
`What two tracts cross at the anterior white commissure?
Spinothalamic and anterior spinocerebellar
Where do 90% of corticospinal fibers decussate?
The lumbar cistern extends from...
L1 to S2
Where is the subarachnoid space?
Between arachnoid and pia
What is the origin of the vertebral arteries?
What is the flow of CSF in the CNS?
1. Made in the choroid plexus
2. Lateral ventricles
3. Interventricular foramen
4. 3rd ventricle
5. Cerebral aqueduct
6. 4th ventricle
7. Lateral aperture and medial foramen
8. Subarachnoid cisterns
9. Arachnoid granulations
10. Reabsorbed into venous sinus blood
What structures does the anterior choroidal artery supply?
Posterior limb of internal capsule
What supplies the corpus callosum?
What supplies Broca's and Wernicke's?
Where does the superior sagittal sinus empty?
Confluence of sinuses
What two structures form the straight sinus?
Great vein of Galen and inferior sagittal sinus
Where does the straight sinus empty?
Confluence of sinuses
What is the largest cistern and where is it located?
Cisterna magna. Located between medulla and cerebellum.
Which cistern contains the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries?
Superior cistern (aka quadrigeminal aka cisterna ambiens)
What are the symptoms of Grestman's syndrome and what causes it?
Caused by lesion in the inferior parietal lobule.
1. Finger agnosia
3. Inability to distinguish L from R
What does the labyrinthine artery supply?
Inner ear structures
What are the two major gyri of the occipital lobe?
Cuneus and lingual
Which vessel creates anterior perforated substance?
Lenticulostriate arteries from the MCA