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Flashcards in Lab Exam Deck (115):
1

Blood supply for Wernicke's area

MCA (inferior division)

2

Location of Broca's area

Inferior frontal gyrus

3

Location of Wernicke's area

Superior temporal gyrus

4

What is the arcuate fasciculus?

Pathway in which Broca's and Wernicke's communicate

5

What cortex is the calcarine sulcus in?

Visual

6

What supplies the gyri brevis?

MCA

7

What artery supplies the primary visual cortex?

Calcarine artery

8

Calcarine artery arises from which larger vessel?

PCA

9

Occlusion of the PCA produces what deficits?

Contralateral homonymous hemianopsia

10

What fibers are found within the anterior white commissure?

Spinothalamic

11

Where does the great vein of Galen drain?

Straight sinus

12

What lamina is the dorsal nucleus of Clarke found in?

Lamina VII

13

What is the function of the anterior commissure?

Connects right and left temporal lobes

14

The septum pellucidum forms the walls of what ventricles?

Lateral ventricles

15

Occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius will produce what pathology?

Non-communicating hydrocephalus

16

What drains the confluence of sinus?

Transverse sinus --> sigmoid sinus --> IJV

17

When the fasciculus gracilis fibers are decussating, what are they called? What do they travel as?

Internal arcuate fibers. Medial lemniscus.

18

Lesion to the cauda equina will result in...

Saddle anesthesia--no bowel/bladder control

19

What is the most common defect of the anterior communicating artery?

Berry aneurysm

20

What is the function of the precentral gyrus?

Primary motor

21

What gyrus is the uncus in?

Parahippocampal gyrus

22

What structure is found deep within the lateral sulcus?

Insula (central lobe)

23

Occlusion of the ACA will produce deficits where?

Contralateral lower limb

24

A lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus will produce what deficit?

Broca's aphasia (expressive aphasia)

25

What vertebral levels are the IMLs located at?

T1-L2 and S2-S4

26

What do the pontine arteries arise from?

Basilar artery

27

Blockage of the interventricular foramen leads to build up in what structures?

Lateral ventricles

28

What tract travels through the dorsolateral tract of Lissauer?

Spinothalamic tract

29

Where does the sigmoid sinus drain?

IJV

30

Injury to the anterior paracentral gyrus will lead to what symptoms?

Contralateral lower extremity paralysis

31

What sense is controlled by the lingual gyrus?

Vision

32

The angular artery is a branch of....

MCA

33

The parahippocampal gyrus is part of what lobe?

Limbic

34

Alpha motor neurons are found in what lamina?

Lamina IX

35

What supplies the gyrus rectus?

Orbital branches of the ACA

36

What is the source of the pericallosal artery?

ACA

37

What portion of the hypothalamus sends info to the pineal body?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

38

Failure of the lamina terminalis to close during development will lead to what condition?

Anencephaly

39

Tertiary neurons from which tract synapse on the post central gyrus?

Dorsal column

40

Occlusion of PICA will lead to what symptoms?

Wallenberg:
Diplopia
Nystagmus
Horner syndrome
Vertigo

41

What supplies blood to the cingulate gyrus?

Pericallosal branch of ACA

42

Superior cerebral veins drain into what sinus?

Superior sagittal sinus

43

Hyperreflexia can result from occlusion of what branch of the ICA?

MCA

44

The great anastomotic vein of Trolard is an anastomosis of what two vessels?

Superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein

45

Occlusion of the calcarine branch of the PCA will lead to what symptoms?

Homonymous hemianopsia with macular sparing

46

Which layer of the spinal dura mater is vascular?

Periosteal layer

47

What separates the two cerebellar hemispheres?

Falx cerebelli

48

What vertebral level does the cauda equina end in adults?

S2

49

What vertebral level is the conus medullaris found in adults?

L1/L2

50

What vertebral level is the conus medullaris found in children?

L2/L3

51

What three vessels do you find in the superior cistern?

1. Great vein of Galen
2. Posterior cerebral artery
3. Superior cerebellar artery

52

What is the anterior wall of the third ventricle? What is it bounded by?

Lamina terminalis. Bounded on the left and right by the hypothalamus and thalamus.

53

Name three branches of the ICA.

ACA, MCA, posterior/anterior communicating arties, anterior choroidal artery, opthalamic artery

54

What happens if you occlude the ophthalmic artery?

Vision loss in ipsilateral eye

55

What happens if you occlude the anterior choroidal artery?**

Contralateral hemiparesis, hemianesthesia, hemianopia

56

Name two branches of the vertebral artery.

Anterior spinal artery, PICA

57

The ICA enters the skull via ______ and the vertebral artery enters via _____.

Carotid canal / foramen magnum

58

What two vessels supply the choroid plexus in the 4th ventricle?

PICA and AICA

59

Name three branches of the basilar artery.

Superior cerebellar artery, AICA, pontine branches, labyrinthine artery.

60

What CN exits the brainstem by passing between the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries?**

CN III

61

Compression of CN III would lead to what symptoms?

Visual deficits, including accommodation and light response

62

What CN is found in the interpeduncular fossa?

CN III

63

What two veins form the great vein of Galen?**

Internal cerebral vein and basal vein of Rosenthal

64

What two veins form the straight sinus?**

Inferior sagittal sinus and the great vein of Galen

65

What three sinuses drain into the confluence of sinuses?

Occipital sinus, straight sinus, and the superior sagittal sinus

66

The superficial middle cerebral vein drains into what sinus?

Cavernous sinus

67

Superior anastomotic vein of Trolard drains into what sinus?

Superior sagittal sinus

68

Inferior anastomotic vein of Labbe connects what two veins? What does it drain into?

Superficial middle cerebral vein and transverse sinus. Empties into transverse sinus.

69

What vessels run inside the cavernous sinus?

Internal carotid artery, CN VI

70

What vessels run inside the walls of the cavernous sinus?

CN III, IV, V1, V2

71

What drains the cavernous sinus?

Superior and inferior petrosal sinuses

72

Embryological origin of hypothalamus

Diencephalon

73

Embryological origin of aqueduct

Mesencepalon

74

Embryological origin of pons/cerebellum

Metencephalon

75

Embryological origin of medulla

Myelencephalon

76

Embryological origin of third ventricle

Diencephalon

77

What sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobes?

Parieto-occipital sulcus

78

The inferior parietal lobule is an association area where multiple sensory inputs converge. A lesion to this area is called....

Gerstmann's syndrome

79

Where is the primary auditory cortex?

Transverse gyri of Heschl

80

The calcarine sulcus divides the occipital lobe into what two areas?

Cuneus and lingual gyrus

81

Occlusion of the MCA will cause...**

Contralateral hemiparesis of the upper limb and face

82

What is the blood supply for the internal capsule, putamen, and caudate?

Lenticulostriate branches of MCA

83

What is the function of the parahippocampal gyrus?

Peripheral and episodic memory

84

Lesion to the optic chiasm will lead to....

Ipsilateral hemianopia

85

Lesion to the optic tract will lead to....

Contralateral hemianopia

86

What artery travels in the parietal occipital sulcus?

PCA

87

What supplies the splenium of the corpus callosum? What supplies the rest of the corpus callosum?

PCA / ACA

88

An injury to the bridging veins will lead to what clinical presentation?**

Subdural hematoma

89

Which lamina contains enkephalin and substance P?**

Lamina II

90

What laminae contain the nucleus proprius?

Laminae III and IV

91

What lamina contains the posteromarginal nucleus?

Lamina I

92

What lamina contains the zona intermedia, the dorsal nucleus of Clarke, and IML?

Lamina VII

93

What lamina is the central canal found in?

Lamina X

94

What lamina are alpha motor neurons and gamma motor neurons found in?

Lamina IX

95

Fibers from what tract arise from the dorsal nucleus of Clarke?**

Posterior spinocerebellar tract

96

What tract enters the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle?**

Posterior spinocerebellar tract

97

`What two tracts cross at the anterior white commissure?

Spinothalamic and anterior spinocerebellar

98

Where do 90% of corticospinal fibers decussate?

Medullary pyramids

99

The lumbar cistern extends from...

L1 to S2

100

Where is the subarachnoid space?

Between arachnoid and pia

101

What is the origin of the vertebral arteries?

Subclavian artery

102

What is the flow of CSF in the CNS?

1. Made in the choroid plexus
2. Lateral ventricles
3. Interventricular foramen
4. 3rd ventricle
5. Cerebral aqueduct
6. 4th ventricle
7. Lateral aperture and medial foramen
8. Subarachnoid cisterns
9. Arachnoid granulations
10. Reabsorbed into venous sinus blood

103

What structures does the anterior choroidal artery supply?

Deep structures:
Choroid plexus
Lateral ventricle
Putamen
Posterior limb of internal capsule

104

What supplies the corpus callosum?

ACA

105

What supplies Broca's and Wernicke's?

MCA

106

Where does the superior sagittal sinus empty?

Confluence of sinuses

107

What two structures form the straight sinus?

Great vein of Galen and inferior sagittal sinus

108

Where does the straight sinus empty?

Confluence of sinuses

109

What is the largest cistern and where is it located?

Cisterna magna. Located between medulla and cerebellum.

110

Which cistern contains the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries?

Superior cistern (aka quadrigeminal aka cisterna ambiens)

111

What are the symptoms of Grestman's syndrome and what causes it?

Caused by lesion in the inferior parietal lobule.

1. Finger agnosia
2. Agraphia
3. Inability to distinguish L from R
4. Acalculia

112

What does the labyrinthine artery supply?

Inner ear structures

113

What are the two major gyri of the occipital lobe?

Cuneus and lingual

114

Which vessel creates anterior perforated substance?

Lenticulostriate arteries from the MCA

115

What lobe is the hippocampal gyrus part of?

Limbic lobe